Association between disability and suicide-related outcomes among U.S. adults
Marlow, N.M., Xie, Z., Tanner, R., & Kirby, A.V.
Introduction: Although research has analyzed the sociodemographic and socioeconomic risks for suicide, only recently has suicide risk for people with disabilities been examined. This study investigates the associations between disability and distinct suicide-related outcomes, including suicidal ideation, suicide planning, and suicide attempt.
Methods: This nationally representative, cross-sectional study comprised secondary analyses of the 2015-2019 National Survey on Drug Use and Health conducted in 2020 (N=198,640, representing 229,556,289 U.S. adults). Disability status comprised the presence of any disability; hearing, vision, mobility, cognitive, complex activity, or ≥2 limitations; and 1, 2, 3, 4, or ≥5 limitations. Suicide-related outcomes in the past year included none, suicidal ideation only, suicide planning, and suicide attempt. Multivariable logistic regression was applied to estimate the AORs.
Results: Overall, 19.8% reported any disability. Results showed that people with disabilities were significantly more likely than those without disabilities to report suicidal ideation (AOR=2.13, 95% CI=1.93, 2.36), suicide planning (AOR=2.66, 95% CI=2.27, 3.11), and suicide attempt (AOR=2.47, 95% CI=2.05, 2.98). Furthermore, individuals within each limitation count group were significantly more likely than people without disabilities to report suicide-related outcomes (p<0.001), with the largest magnitudes among those with ≥5 limitations for suicidal ideation (AOR=3.80, 95% CI=2.32, 6.23), suicide planning (AOR=6.45, 95% CI=3.52, 11.80), and suicide attempt (AOR=8.19, 95% CI=4.45, 15.07).
Conclusions: People with various types of functional disabilities had an elevated risk for suicide-related outcomes, compared with people without disabilities. The more limitations a person had progressively increased their risk. These findings call for focused attention to the mental health of people with disabilities, including suicide prevention efforts that accommodate their needs.