The mediating role of time perspective in the relationship between chronotype and suicide in bipolar disorder

(1) Background: Suicide in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) is related to the chronotype of the person from a biological perspective. However, it is not known whether there is a relationship between suicide and psychological time in BD. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between time perspective (TP) and suicide and […]

Assessing the Vital Balance in Evaluating Suicidal Potential (IN: Assessment, Treatment, and Prevention of Suicidal Behavior, edited by R I Yufit & D Lester)

The discussion in this chapter uses a theoretical basis which assumes sound mental health can be represented as an equilibrium, or vital balance. The concept is modified from the writings of Menninger & incorporates the ideas of Antonovsky & his formulations for coping with stress. The Suicide Assessment Checklist, the Coping Abilities Questionnaire, & the […]

Future Orientation and Suicide Ideation and Attempts in Depressed Adults Ages 50 and Over

The hypothesis that future orientation is associated with lower levels of suicide ideation & lower likelihood of suicide attempt was tested in a sample of 202 patients in treatment for major depression. Hypotheses were tested using multivariate logistic regression & linear regression analyses that accounted for age, gender, hopelessness, & depression. As hypothesized, higher future […]

Understanding the Relationship Between Depression, Hopelessness, Psychache and Suicide Risk

2 studies were done to examine the relationship between suicidality & 3 key psychological predictors of suicide risk, namely, depression, hopelessness, & psychache. Using a sample of 587 undergraduates, Study 1 determined the degree to which these predictors are distinct. Exploratory & confirmatory factor analyses indicated the factors were separate but correlated. Study 2 compared […]

Suicidal Ideation and Time Perspective in High School Students


Cognitive Style and Suicidal Behavior (In: Suicide: Strategies and Interventions for Reduction and Prevention, ed. by S Palmer


Cognitive Reactivity, Suicidal Ideation and Future Fluency: Preliminary Investigation of a Differential Activation Theory of Hopelessness/Suicidality

The authors investigated whether the re-emergence of hopeless/suicidal cognitions over time can be explained within a differential activation framework. 2 studies, 146 & 136 participants respectively, showed that individuals who reported suicide ideation when depressed in the past had higher scores on the hopelessness/suicidality subscale of a measure assessing cognitive reactivity to low mood. Study […]

Temporal Orientation in Suicidal Patients

Cultivating Optimism in Childhood and Adolescence

This article reviews research on the development of optimism & hope & interventions designed to build these qualities in youth. The Penn Resiliency Program is discussed as an example of a school-based intervention that may promote hope & prevent symptoms of depression, anxiety, & suicidal ideation. Limits of existing studies & directions for future research […]

Surviving in the Time Machine: Suicidal Prisoners and the Pains of Prison Time

The author uses accounts of prisoners’ experiences of incarceration to explore the nature of the relationship between prisoners & time. Her analysis of prisoner accounts reveals patterned differences between suicidal & coping prisoners in their relationship with prison time. Implications for prevention & research are discussed. (23 refs)

Parasuicide: Cognitive Vulnerability, Future Directed Thinking and Perfectionism

Published in “Suicide Risk & Protective Factors in the New Millennium,” ed. by O T Grad

Hopelessness and Future Thinking in Parasuicide: the Role of Perfectionism

This study had 3 aims: 1) to independently replicate the future thinking effect, that parasuicides, when compared with controls, show a deficit in positive future thinking but no increase in negative future thinking; 2) to determine whether positive future thinking & socially prescribed perfectionism discriminate general hospital parasuicides from controls beyond measures of affect; & […]

Mayakovsky and his Time Imagery

The authors traces Mayakovsky’s poetic career by tracing the recurring theme of time in his poetry. In particular, the author focuses on Mayakovsky’s relationship with the future, which at first was confident, but which suffered a series of breaks in 1920s Communist Russia, & eventually culminated in his own suicide in 1930.

Suicidal Adolescent Perceptions After an art Future Image Intervention

The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore reactions of hospitalized, suicidal adolescents to an art furture image intervention. During the intervention adolescents were asked to rethink future expectations while creating a caricature of themselves in the future. Follow-up interviews were coded & analyzed to determine the meaning of the intervention to adolescents. The […]

The Suicide Victim Depression La depresion del suicida

This article is an English translation. The original Spanish text is also available.

A Cognitive Model of Suicidal Behavior (IN: Current Concepts of Suicide, edited by D Lester)

It is argued that a better understanding of who will commit suicide can be gained by considering why someone chooses suicide over other alternatives. This argument will be advanced by examining the cognitive activity of suicidal adults. 3 lines of research will be reviewed related to: cognitive structure; problem-solving skills; & anticipation of the future. […]

Time Perspective, Mood Disturbance, and Suicide Liberation

In this study 238 university students & 159 senior high school students were assessed on a variety of temporal & personality measures. It was found that temporal extension, temporal attitude & impulsivity had comparatively little effect on suicide ideation after the effects of mood disturbance were controlled. Negative temporal attitudes appeared to have significant impact […]

Future Images: an art Intervention With Suicidal Adolescents

The effectiveness of an art future-image intervention designed to increase self esteem, improve future time perspective & decrease depression was evaluated among 47 hospitalized suicidal adolescents. A pretest-posttest design was used with two groups, an experimental group & an attention placebo group. The experimental group showed greater positive changes, but both groups improved on all […]

Suicide and Time Perspective: an Examination of Beck and Yufit’s Suicide-Risk Indicators

An investigation with 86 university students tested the concurrent & convergent validity of Beck’s & Yufit’s scales of suicide risk. Moderate correlations were found between these 2 scales. Both authors had stressed the importance of time perspective in the development of their scales. Beck’s Hopelessness Scale was found to correlate well with other attitudinal measures […]

Seasonal Variations in the Incidence of Social Stress in Contemporary American Society

Describes research that uses a macroscopic measurement device called the Index of the Pace of Social Life to measure the seasonality of social stress in contemporary U.S. society. Findings indicate that the amount of stress varies significantly & consistently over the calendar year. Possible explanations are offered as to why certain months tend to demonstrate […]

Age, Period of Death and Birth Cohort Effects on Suicide Mortality in Italy, 1955-1979

Trends in death rates from all suicides & specific methods of suicide in Italy over the period 1955-79 were analysed on the basis of age-specific & age-standardized rates, & through a log-linear Poisson model to isolate the effects of age, birth cohort & calendar period. Death statistics were obtained from the Central Institute of Statistics, […]

Assessment of Suicide Risk

K. Hawton presents an overview of suicidal assessment, initially addressing the problems in determining risk, & then proceeding to an examination of the risk of suicide for those with psychiatric disorders & for particular clinical populations, both hospitalized patients & suicide attempters. Various research findings that can assist the clinician in making a decision about […]

Suicide and Parasuicide Among Further Education Students in Edinburgh

This study reports the results of an investigation of suicide & parasuicide among students aged 15-24. Contrary to previous findings, lower frequencies of both forms of self-destructive behavior were found in the student population, compared to non-student, same age peers. During the period 1979-1982, controlled case studies were conducted, based on the suicides & attempts. […]