Shame, depression, and complicated grief among suicide loss-survivors: The moderating role of self-disclosure

Background: Suicide-loss survivors (SLSs) are recognised as an at-risk population for several psychiatric complications, including complicated grief (CG) and depression (SI). However, whereas shame is known as one of the characteristics of this population, knowledge about possible psychological processes which may moderate the contribution of shame levels to CG and depression in the aftermath of suicide […]

The importance of timing, fundamental attitudes, and appropriate interventions as key aspects of chaplain suicide prevention: A European expert panel of mental health chaplains

An expert panel consisting of six mental health chaplains from several European countries was convened to ascertain the specific contribution of mental health chaplains to suicide prevention, and to generate good practices for suicide prevention. Three themes emerged: (1) the importance of timing; (2) fundamental attitudes of the chaplain towards the patient, and (3) appropriate […]

Acute shame predicts urges for suicide but not for substance use in a veteran population

Objective There is an urgent need to identify ways to reduce rates of suicide among Veterans with a substance use disorder. Since co-occurring disorders can make diagnosis and treatment complex, it is useful for the mental health field to examine common factors that may underlie both problems. One common factor that underlies both substance use […]

Suicide loss survivors: Navigating social stigma and threats to social bonds

The complicated grief experienced by suicide loss survivors leads to feelings of abandonment, rejection, intense self-blame, and depression. Stigma surrounding suicide further burdens survivors who can experience rejection by their community and social networks. Research in the field of psychology has delved into the grieving process of suicide loss survivors, however the effects of suicide […]

Suicide grief support program

Grieving a loss to suicide can seem overwhelming, but the support and understanding of others can be a powerful source of strength. Our Suicide Bereavement Support Groups welcome anyone who has lost someone to suicide. Each group includes 3 modules covered over a 12-week period. Participants must attend an intake session prior to joining a group.

The relations between childhood maltreatment, shame, guilt, depression and suicidal ideation in inpatient adolescents

Background Previous studies demonstrated positive relations between various forms of maltreatment and suicidal ideation; however, mechanisms underlying these relationships are not well understood. We propose that the experience of maltreatment in childhood may lead to high levels of generalized guilt and shame, resulting in an increase of depressive symptoms and suicidal thoughts in adolescents. The […]

Self-compassion and suicide risk in veterans: When the going gets touch, do the tough benefit more from self-compassion?

Objectives: Veterans are at particular risk for suicide due to psychopathological, emotional, and interpersonal risk factors. However, the presence of individual-level protective factors, such as self-compassion, may reduce risk, becoming more salient at increasing levels of distress and psychopathology, per theory. We examined the relation between self-compassion and suicide risk, and the moderating effects of […]

Trauma-related shame, sexual assault severity, thwarted belongingness, and perceived burdensomeness among female undergraduate survivors of sexual assault

Background and Aim: This study evaluated trauma-related shame as a mediator of the association between sexual assault severity and perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. Method: A total of 164 female undergraduates who reported attempted or completed sexual assault completed self-report measures of sexual assault, trauma-related shame, perceived burdensomeness, and thwarted belongingness. Results: Using path analysis, […]

Shame and non-suicidal self-injury: Conceptualization and preliminary test of a novel developmental model among emerging adults

Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is particularly prevalent during adolescence and emerging adulthood. The salience of shame during these developmental periods suggests that shame may be inherently linked to NSSI, and at least partially explain the high rates of NSSI observed among youth. In this article, a theoretical developmental model relating shame and NSSI is proposed, and […]

The stigma perceived by people bereaved by suicide and other sudden deaths: A cross-sectional UK study of 3432 bereaved adults

Objective To test the hypothesis that perceived stigma scores in young adults bereaved by suicide are significantly higher than in young adults bereaved by other sudden deaths, whether blood-related to the deceased or not. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of all staff and students aged 18–40 at 37 UK higher educational institutions in 2010, and identified 3432 […]

Expressed emotion, shame, and non-suicidal self-injury.

A cross-sectional study examining relationships between perceived family Expressed Emotion and shame, emotional involvement, depression, anxiety, stress and non-suicidal self-injury, in 264 community and online adults (21.6% male). We compared self-injurers with non-self-injurers, and current with past self-injurers. Self-injurers experienced more family Expressed Emotion (EE) than non-injurers (t(254) = −3.24, p = 0.001), linear contrasts explaining […]

Shame, guilt, and suicide ideation among bondage and discipline, dominance and submission, and sadomasochism practitioners: Examining the role of the interpersonal theory of suicide.

To date, no study has examined rates of suicide ideation or theory-based risk factors for suicide ideation among bondage and discipline, dominance and submission, and sadomasochism (BDSM) practitioners. Participants were 321 adults that endorsed BDSM involvement. Thirty-seven percent of the sample indicated a nonzero level of suicide ideation. Thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness (PB) were […]

Maladaptive perfectionism: Understanding the psychological vulnerability to suicide in terms of developmental history.


Conceptualizing suicide bereavement from an attachment lens.

Suicide is a devastating event for individuals, families, and societies. With a conservative estimate of 1 million deaths worldwide per year as the result of suicide, it affects every fabric of society. In addition to managing the trauma of the death, it is family structure and processes that are altered in significant ways, specifically with […]

The effect of shame-proneness, guilt-proneness, and internalizing tendencies on nonsuicidal self-injury.

Nonsuicidal self-injury is especially common in adolescents and young adults. Self-injury may be related to shame or guilt, two moral emotions, as these differentially predict other maladaptive behaviors. Using a college sample, we examined not only how shame-proneness, guilt-proneness, and internalizing emotional tendencies related to self-injury, but also whether these moral emotions moderate the relation […]

Shame reactions after suicide attempt.

Shame reactions were spontaneously described by 13 of 18 patients interviewed in a qualitative study investigating experiences of care following a suicide attempt. The shame data from the interview study were extracted, analysed separately, and are reported in this article. The shame reactions often occurred in conjunction with the suicide attempt. Feelings of shame were […]

Last words: analysis of suicide notes from an RECBT perspective: an exploratory study.


Shame, pride, and suicidal ideation in a military clinical sample.

Background Suicide risk among U.S. military personnel has been increasing over the past decade. Fluid vulnerability theory (FVT; Rudd, 2006) posits that acute suicidal episodes increase in severity when trait-based (e.g., shame) and state-based (e.g., hopelessness) risk factors interact, especially among individuals who have been previously suicidal. In contrast, trait-based protective factors (e.g., pride) should […]

Better dead than dishonored: masculinity and male suicidal behavior in contemporary Ghana.

In Ghana reliable official data on suicidal behavior are not available. There is also limited empirical research on suicidal behavior in the country. At the same time, police-recorded suicide data, media reports, and communication from professionals in the field indicate that suicidal behavior is a growing problem. To identify current patterns and meanings of male […]

Marital breakdown, shame, and suicidality in men: a direct link?

The influence of feelings of shame originating from marital breakdown on suicidality is examined. The role of mental health problems as probable mediating factors is also considered. Internalized shame, state (related to separation) shame, and mental health problems were significantly correlated with the score for suicidality during separation in both genders. Tested structural equation model […]

The hidden face of suicide.


The Relationship Between Police Officer Suicide and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (In: Suicide and Law Enforcement, edited by D C Sheehan & J I Warren)

This chapter examines the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder & police suicide. It examines the predisposing factors, time-of-incident variables, & long-term effects that can individually or in unison contribute to suicide. A multifaceted approach is offered to preventing suicide among officers suffering posttraumatic stress disorder, including training of officers, training of managers, policy & procedure […]

The Hospital Treatment of Involutional Psychoses (IN: Depression, edited by P H Hoch & J Zubin)

This chapter reports on a study of patients with involutional psychoses who were addmitted to a psychiatric hopsital in New York. The histories of 319 patients were reviewed, divided into a group of 100 women & 100 men admitted between 1920 & 1940 before electroconvulsive therapy was used, & a group of 119 patients (69 […]