Time of self‑harm presentations to hospital emergency departments: A scoping review

Background: The time at which a self-harm presentation occurs has been shown to be a significant factor as to whether a patient receives a psychiatric assessment or not, which may benefit the patient’s future care. This scoping review sought to identify studies that report on the peak time of day for self-harm presentations to hospital Emergency […]

Biosignature of self-injury behaviors in adolescence: Role of β-endorphin in an acute inpatient unit

Self-injurious behavior (SIB) (either non-suicidal self-injury, NSSI; or suicide attempts, SA) is a common reason for adolescent psychiatric emergency hospitalizations. Altered basal serum β-endorphin (BE) levels have been reported in adults with a history of SIB, but information is lacking in adolescents. We analyzed the psychoclinical profile and serum BE level of 39 adolescents admitted […]

Stepped care for suicide prevention in teens and young adults: Design and methods of a randomized controlled trial

Background Suicide is the second‑leading cause of death among adolescents and young adults in the United States, with rates rising over much of the last decade. The design, testing, and implementation of interventions to prevent suicide in this population is a public health priority. This manuscript outlines the design and methods for a research study […]

Young peoples’ perspectives on the role of harm reduction techniques in the management of their self-harm: A qualitative study

Objective Self-harm is a common phenomenon amongst young people, often used to regulate emotional distress. Over the last decade harm reduction approaches to self-harm have been introduced as a means to minimize risk and reinforce alternative coping strategies. However, there is a stark absence of research into the perceived usefulness of such techniques amongst adolescents, […]

Implicit associations of nonsuicidal self-injury with relief in posttraumatic stress and depressive disorders

Although once considered a defining feature of borderline personality disorder, research has found high rates of NSSI among individuals with other psychiatric disorders, particularly posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive disorders. A recent study from our research team found that lifetime PTSD and depressive disorders were associated with unique self-reported NSSI motives. Given well-established limitations […]

Does nonsuicidal self-injury predict later suicidal attempts? A review of studies

Co-occurrence of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts (SA) might occur because they share common risk factors, or alternatively because one leads to the other. Using search terms salient to NSSI and SA, we screened 555 studies to identify 17 that presented temporal data about NSSI and SA. Much of the evidence indicates that NSSI […]

Different ways to drown out the pain: A meta-analysis of the association between nonsuicidal self-injury and alcohol use

Objective There is a significant overlap in the motivations for nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and alcohol use. Moreover, several theories would predict that more frequent alcohol use is likely associated with more NSSI engagement. Still, the size and direction of this association has not been well documented in the literature. Method To address this gap, the […]

Does function predict persistence? Nonsuicidal self-injury among adolescents during and after hospitalization

Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a prevalent, concerning behavior among adolescents. Importantly, NSSI can serve a variety of functions. Some adolescents engage in NSSI to fulfill automatic or self-oriented functions (e.g., cutting to avoid internal negative states), whereas others engage in NSSI to serve social functions (e.g., cutting to communicate with others). This study tests whether […]

Association of patient-reported outcomes with subsequent nonfatal self-injury after a new cancer diagnosis

Objective: To examine the associations between patient-reported outcome measures and subsequent NFSI in patients with cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based matched case-control study included adults with a new cancer diagnosis reporting an Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) score within 36 months of diagnosis in Ontario, Canada, 2007 to 2019. Data analysis was performed […]

Recent exposure to others’ confided suicidal thoughts and risk of self‑harm and suicidality among adolescents

Few studies have investigated the contagion effects of exposure to others’ confided suicidal thoughts among adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate whether recent real-world exposure to confided suicidal thoughts was associated with adolescent self-harm and suicidality within one month, and if so, to determine the related risk and protective factors. A total […]

Suicidal ideation and behaviors among Irish Travellers presenting for emergency care: Ethnicity as a risk factor

Background: Suicide is a serious problem in the Traveller community, with rates estimated at 11%: over 6 times that of the general population. Aims: We aimed to establish the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation (SI) and self-harm (SH) among Irish Travellers. Method: This was an observational cross-sectional cohort study of patients presenting with SH and SI to a tertiary […]

13 Reasons Why: Perceptions and correlates of media influence in psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents

Objective The Netflix series 13 Reasons Why (13RW) has sparked controversy due to graphic depictions of youth suicide, bullying, and sexual assault. However, further research is needed examining experiences of the show among youth with psychiatric illness. This exploratory, mixed-methods study examines adolescents’ perceptions of 13RW and associations among viewership, suicide-related media influence processes, and self-injurious thoughts and behaviors […]

Development of the self-injury risk assessment protocol for corrections (SIRAP-C)

Objective: We developed the Self-Injury Risk Assessment Protocol for Corrections (SIRAP-C) to meet legal mandates for self-directed violence (SDV) risk assessment standards in correctional settings. We focused on two empirical aims: (1) factor structure and internal consistency and (2) subscale associations with SDV and intervention recommendation outcomes. Hypotheses: We expected a multifactorial SIRAP-C structure with acceptable internal […]

Suicidal ideation, self-injury, aggressive behavior and substance use during intensive trauma-focused treatment with exposure-based components in adolescent and young adult PTSD patients

Background Multiple traumata such as child sexual and/or physical abuse often result in complex psychopathologies and a range of associated dysfunctional behaviors. Although evidence-based interventions exist, some therapists are concerned that trauma-focused psychotherapy with exposure-based elements may lead to the deterioration of associated dysfunctional behaviors in adolescents and young adults. Therefore, we examined the course […]

Risk assessment of self-injurious behavior and suicide presentation in the emergency department: An integrative review

Introduction Globally, there is a lack of clarity regarding the best practice to distinguish patients at the highest risk of suicide. This review explores the use of risk assessment tools in emergency departments to identify patients at high risk of repeat self-harm, suicide attempts, or death by suicide. Methods The review question (“Does the use […]

Developmental associations between bullying victimization and suicidal ideation and direct self-injurious behavior in adolescence and emerging adulthood

Background Bullying, suicide, and self-injury are significant issues among young people. Extensive research has documented bullying victimization associations with suicidal ideation and self-injury; however, the modeling approaches used have mostly not addressed the relations between these constructs at the within-person level, and it is these links that are critical for testing developmental theories and guiding […]

Adverse clinical outcomes among youths with nonsuicidal self-injury and suicide attempts: A longitudinal cohort study

Background More knowledge about risks of clinical outcomes associated with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts (SAs) is needed to inform risk assessment and intervention. Methods Longitudinal cohort study based on 1,855 youths was clinically assessed for NSSI and SA, and followed up (from December, 2011 to December 2013) for the outcomes; diagnosed self-injury, alcohol/substance […]

Self-injurious thoughts and behaviors among college students: A latent class analysis

This study explored emerging typologies of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors and how they relate to known psychological and cognitive correlates. Latent class analysis was employed to identify subgroups of college students (n = 626, mean age = 20, 73% female, and 83% White) based on history of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors. Differences among classes were tested to […]

Self-inflicted injury and the older trauma patients: A 20 year review of suicide attempts and outcomes

Purpose: Older patients (Older) have complex health management needs often requiring additional resources. Mental health disorders are common among trauma patients, yet minimal information on older suicidal related injury and outcomes exists. A review of trauma patients with intentional self-inflicted injury at one trauma center was done to describe and identify unique elements of this cohort […]

The serious self-harm risk of “mixed presenters,” People who presented to New Zealand emergency departments for self-harm and other reasons: A cohort study

The objective of this study was to investigate if “Mixed Presenters,” people who present to emergency departments at least twice within 28 days, once for self-harm and once for another reason (any order), have an increased risk of subsequent serious self-harm compared to self-harm only repeat presenters. Self-harm coded emergency department data from the Multi-level […]

Receiving threatening or obscene messages from a partner and mental health, self-harm and suicidality: Results from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey.

Purpose Threatening or obscene messaging is repeated, unwanted texts, emails, letters or cards experienced by the recipient as threatening or obscene, and causing fear, alarm or distress. It is rarely examined as an aspect of intimate partner violence. We describe the prevalence of exposure to threatening/obscene messaging from a current or ex-partner; characteristics of victims; […]

Social media use and self-injurious thoughts and behaviors: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Despite considerable public and scholarly debate about the role of social media in self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs), no comprehensive, quantitative synthesis of this literature has previously been undertaken. The current systematic review and meta-analysis examines associations between social media use and SITBs, including suicidal ideation, suicide plans, suicide attempts, and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). A range of social […]

Non-suicidal self-injury and eating disordered behaviors: An update on what we do and do not know

between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and eating disordered (ED) behaviors and highlights meaningful directions for future research. Recent findings: While there is solid evidence indicating a robust cross-sectional association between NSSI and ED behaviors, emerging evidence suggests that the temporal relationship between these behaviors may be bidirectional. Shared functions and risk factors may explain why these behaviors […]