American gun violence & mental illness: Reducing risk, restoring health, respecting rights & reviving communities

Intentional injuries claimed nearly two hundred lives every day in the United States in 2020, about two-thirds of them suicides, each a story of irretrievable human loss. This essay addresses the complex intersection of injurious behavior with mental illness and access to firearms. It explores what more can be done to stop gun violence while […]

Employee attitudes toward suicide prevention and Counseling on Access to Lethal Means: Initial findings from an academic medical center implementing the Zero Suicide framework

Introduction: Zero Suicide is a strategic framework designed to transform a healthcare system’s suicide prevention activities. In 2020, University of Utah Health launched a Zero Suicide program and Counseling on Access to Lethal Means (CALM) training for its employees. In 2022, the healthcare system surveyed its workforce’s attitudes toward suicide prevention and CALM. We sought to […]

Misclassification of self-directed violence: Does the provision of a definition enhance diagnostic accuracy?

Background: Classification of acts of self-directed violence has been shown to be inadequate in past research. Furthermore, level of expertise have been shown to be unrelated to classification correctness. Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether participants provided with a definition are more reliable in their judgment than participants without a definition. Method: Two hundred sixty-one […]

Factors associated with suicide/self-inflicted injuries among women aged 18–65 years in the United States: A 13-year retrospective analysis of the National Inpatient Sample database

Background Suicide is a significant cause of mortality in the United States, accounting for 14.5 deaths/100,000. Although there are data on gender disparity in suicide/self-inflicted injury rates in the United States, few studies have examined the factors associated with suicide/self-inflicted injury in females. Objective To determine factors associated with suicide/self-inflicted injuries among women aged 18–65 […]

The recent rise of suicide mortality in the United States

Suicide is a major public health concern in the United States. Between 2000 and 2018, US suicide rates increased by 35%, contributing to the stagnation and subsequent decrease in US life expectancy. During 2019, suicide declined modestly, mostly owing to slight reductions in suicides among Whites. Suicide rates, however, continued to increase or remained stable […]

Causes of suicide tendency in adolescents

This article describes the manifestations of destructive personality behavior, types of character accentuation and factors of their formation.

Lifetime and current self-harm thoughts and behaviors and their relationship to parent and peer attachment

Background: Previous research suggests attachment is a vulnerability factor for self-harm thoughts and behaviors in adults. Yet, few studies have investigated this relationship during adolescence, although adolescence is a critical period for changes in attachment relationships and self-harm onset. Whether and how attachment relates to self-harm thoughts and behaviors as measured in daily life is also […]

Risk and protective factors associated with self-cutting behavior among adolescents at first contact with the juvenile court

Adolescents involved in juvenile legal system are at increased risk for self-cutting behavior, however, correlates associated with elevated risk remain underresearched, particularly among youth with first involvement with the court. This study utilized an epidemiological two-year longitudinal study involving 401 adolescents at first contact with the court (Mage = 14.47; SDage = 1.94 years; 43% female; 42% […]

Loneliness as a predictor of suicidal ideation and behaviour: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies

Background Suicide and suicidal behaviour are global health concerns with complex aetiologies. Given the recent research and policy focus on loneliness, this systematic review aimed to determine the extent to which loneliness predicts suicidal ideation and/or behaviour (SIB) over time. Methods A keyword search of five major databases (CINHAL, Medline, PsychArticles, PsychInfo and Web of Knowledge) was […]

Examining the relationship between mindfulness, self-compassion, and emotion regulation in self-injury

Objective: The objective of the current study was to investigate whether mindfulness and self-compassion are negatively associated with engagement in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and whether emotion dysregulation would mediate this relation. Method: 343 participants (82.2% female; Mage = 23.98; SD = 7.47) were recruited from university and community settings, and completed online questionnaires. Two groups of participants were created: those with […]

Trends in mortality from poisonings, firearms, and all other injuries by intent in the US, 1999-2020

Importance: Although deaths due to external causes are a leading cause of mortality in the US, trends over time by intent and demographic characteristics remain poorly understood. Objective: To examine national trends in mortality rates due to external causes from 1999 to 2020 by intent (homicide, suicide, unintentional, and undetermined) and demographic characteristics. External causes were defined […]

Healthcare utilization 12 months prior to fatal and non-fatal suicidal behaviour in Cape Town, South Africa

The purpose of this study was to characterize healthcare use for general care and mental health one year before suicidal behavior among individuals with fatal and non-fatal suicidal behavior (NFSB) in Cape Town, South Africa. We linked electronic health records of 484 participants from a case series of 93 completed suicides on whom forensic autopsies […]

How does sexual identity-attraction discordance influence suicide risk? A study on male and female adults in the U.S

Background: Suicide continues to be one of the main causes of death among adults in the U.S. Research showed an association between sexual identity-attraction discordance (IAD) and adverse health outcomes, including suicidal ideation. Methods: We sought to determine whether sexual IAD is associated with self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs), namely suicidal thoughts, plans, and suicide attempts, in […]

Trends in self-injurious thoughts and behaviors among US adults, 2015-2019: Differential risk according to sexual orientation

Background: Suicide continues to be one of the leading causes of death in the United States and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals are disproportionately at risk of suicide in comparison to heterosexuals. Methods: We examined data from adults participating for five waves (2015-2019) of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. We first determined whether […]

Empirically derived subgroups of self-injurious thoughts and behavior: Application of latent class analysis

Latent class analysis was applied to the sample data to identify homogenous subtypes or classes of self-injurious thoughts and behavior (SITB) based on indicators indexing suicide ideation, suicide gesture, suicide attempt, thoughts of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), and NSSI behavior. Analyses were based on a sample of 1,809 healthy adults. Associations between the emergent latent classes […]

Definitions and incidence rates of self-harm and suicide attempts in Europe: A scoping review

Introduction: European countries use various terminologies for self-harm and attempted suicide, which are sometimes used interchangeably. This complicates cross-country comparisons of incidence rates. This scoping review aimed to examine the definitions used and the possibilities to identify and compare incidence rates of self-harm and attempted suicide in Europe. Methods: A literature search was conducted in Embase, Medline […]

Exploring particular facets of cognitive emotion regulation and their relationships with nonsuicidal self-injury among adolescents

Background: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has been found to be associated with poor emotion regulation. Aims: The goal of this study was to examine the association of multidimensional cognitive emotion regulation strategies with NSSI among adolescents and compare the different patterns of NSSI. Method: A sample of 594 high-school students (54.4% boys; mean age = 14.96 years), from five regional schools […]

Autonomic dysregulation and self‐injurious thoughts and behaviours in children and young people: A systematic review and meta‐analysis

Background Self-injurious thoughts and behaviours (SITBs) have been associated with dysfunction of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) in children and young people, suggesting that objective ANS measures may aid assessment of suicide risk, but a systematic synthesis of this literature is currently lacking. Methods Following a pre-registered protocol (PROSPERO CRD42022327605), we conducted a systematic search […]

Melatonin use and the risk of self-harm and unintentional injuries in youths with and without psychiatric disorders

Background: Sleep disorders in youth have been associated with increased risks of injury, including suicidal behavior. This study investigated whether melatonin, which is the most common medication for sleep disturbances in youth in Sweden, is associated with a decreased risk of injury. Methods: This population-based cohort study included 25,575 youths who initiated melatonin treatment between ages 6 […]

From court to the community: Improving access to evidence-based treatment for underserved youth involved in the juvenile legal system at-risk for suicide

Background Juvenile legal involved youth (JLIY) experience disproportionately high rates of suicidal and self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SSITB). Many JLIY lack access to evidence-based treatment specifically designed to treat SSITB, thereby increasing the overall risk of suicide. The overwhelming majority of JLIY are not placed in secure facilities and almost all incarcerated youth are eventually […]

Social comparison of mental health, deliberate self-injury and help-negation

Those engaging in deliberate self-injury (DSI) demonstrate low professional help-seeking rates. Help-negation in the context of deliberate self-injury refers to a relationship where higher levels of self-injury are associated with lower help-seeking intentions. This study aims to investigate whether social comparison processes and other variables contribute to help-negation. One hundred and eighty-three university students completed […]

The relationship between emptiness and suicide and self-injury urges in borderline personality disorder

Introduction Suicide and self-injury (SSI) are pervasive among individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD), yet little research has examined factors that increase SSI urges among those with BPD. Emptiness is a diagnostic criterion of BPD that is associated with SSI behaviors, but its impact on SSI urges in BPD is poorly understood. This study investigates […]

Maternal incarceration increases the risk of self-harm but not suicide: A matched cohort study

Aims: Children of incarcerated mothers are at increased risk of experiencing multiple adversity such as poverty, mental illness and contact with child protection services (CPS), including being taken into out of home care (OOHC). However, little is known about whether these children are at increased risk of suicide or self-harm compared to children not exposed […]