Examining decentering as a moderator in the relation between non-suicidal self-injury and suicide ideation via cognitive–affective factors

Objective Given the high prevalence of self-injury but low treatment-seeking among young adults, brief, accessible interventions might help reduce risk of self-injurious thoughts and behavior in this population. This cross-sectional study examined the moderating effects of decentering—a cognitive–affective regulation strategy—in the relation between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide ideation via cognitive–affective factors that increase risk […]

Longitudinal relationships between guilt and suicide risk among adolescents in a postdisaster context: Mediating roles of rumination and posttraumatic stress disorder

Objective To analyze the pathways and mechanisms underlying the impact of guilt on suicide risk using a well-controlled longitudinal study, we examined the mediating roles of intrusive rumination, deliberate rumination, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in this association. Method Four hundred and eight adolescent survivors (Mage = 14.05 years) were assessed using self-report questionnaires three and a half […]

Emotion-related impulsivity and rumination: Unique and conjoint effects on suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and nonsuicidal self-injury across two samples

Introduction Rumination and emotion-related impulsivity predict suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). Because rumination and emotion-related impulsivity, though, are highly correlated, we consider their unique vs. conjoint influence on suicidal ideation and self-harm. Method Across two samples of adults (N’s = 171 and 191), we examined how rumination and emotion-related impulsivity relate to suicidal ideation, […]

Early life trauma, suicide ideation, and suicide attempts: The role of rumination and impulsivity

Suicide is the second leading cause of death for young adults in the United States. One of the many risk factors for suicide includes exposure to early life trauma. The present study examined whether rumination and impulsivity play a role in the relationship between early life trauma and increased risk for suicidal behavior (i.e., suicide […]

Suicidal thoughts and behaviours among autistic adults presenting to the psychiatric emergency department: An exploratory chart review

Despite increasing attention on suicidality in autistic people, we know little about suicidal presentations when autistic individuals present to hospital emergency departments (ED). We conducted an exploratory retrospective chart review of suicidal thoughts and behaviours (STB) of autistic adults who presented to a psychiatric ED. The analysis included 16 charts over a 10-week period. Findings […]

Testing the influence of brooding and anger rumination on the association between suicidal outcomes and BPD features in undergraduate students

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms and suicidal behaviors are prevalent among undergraduate students. Although rumination contributes to self-destructive behaviors in BPD, less research examines the role of rumination in distinct suicidal outcomes among individuals with BPD features instead focusing more on self-destructive behaviors as a latent variable. The present study examined the main and interactive […]

Repetitive negative thinking about suicide: Associations with lifetime suicide attempts

Background: Repetitive negative thinking has been identified as an important predictor of suicide ideation and suicidal behavior. Yet, only few studies have investigated the effect of suicide-specific rumination, i.e., repetitive thinking about death and/or suicide on suicide attempt history. On this background, the present study investigated, whether suicide-specific rumination differentiates between suicide attempters and suicide ideators, […]

Development and initial validation of a scale assessing suicide-specific rumination: The Suicide Rumination Scale

Suicide-specific rumination, a repetitive mental fixation on one’s suicidal thoughts and intentions, may influence the transition from suicidal thoughts to behaviors. Research on suicide-specific rumination has been hindered by the lack of an independent measurement tool. This article presents the development and validation of a self-report measure of suicide-specific rumination across several samples with lifetime […]

The psychosocial impacts of cybervictimisation and barriers to seeking social support: Young people’s perspectives

The negative impact of cyberbullying on the mental health of victims is well established. However, qualitative research related to the mental health impacts of cybervictimisation and how these are experienced by young people is scarce. In particular, little is known about young people’s perceptions of the association between cyberbullying and suicidal behaviours. This paper reports […]

Global and reflective rumination are related to suicide attempts among patients experiencing major depressive episodes.

Background Recent attention has focused on the role of rumination in suicidality, with evidence indicating that rumination may be positively related to suicidal ideation. There remains disagreement on the nature of the relationship between rumination and suicide attempts, especially in major affective disorders. This study was designed to identify whether rumination is a risk factor […]

Direct and indirect effects of behavioral inhibition / activation systems on depression and current suicidal ideation through rumination and self-reflection

This study aimed to evaluate direct and indirect effects of the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and the behavioral activation system (BAS) on depression and current suicidal ideation through rumination and self-reflection in a sample of suicide attempters. Three hundred suicide attempters completed the Rumination/Reflection Questionnaire (RRQ), the Carver and White BIS/BAS scales, the Beck Scale […]

The healing potential of online, Art-DBT: Developing a program of rumination and non-suicidal self-injury reduction

Rationale in a nutshell 1. Rumination contributes to Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) 2. Targeting rumination in the context of Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) could significantly reduce NSSI (or prevent it) 3. Including AT may increase DBT adherence/enhance treatment with benefits unique to AT

Suicide-specific rumination relates to lifetime suicide attempts above and beyond a variety of other suicide risk factors

Suicide-specific rumination, defined as a mental fixation on one’s suicidal thoughts, intentions, and plans, may be an important predictor of suicidal behavior. To date, suicide-specific rumination has demonstrated convergence with, yet distinction from, a variety of suicide risk factors, and differentiated suicide attempters from ideators. However, no research has examined whether suicide-specific rumination is associated with lifetime suicide attempts […]

Lifetime acute suicidal affective disturbance symptoms account for the link between suicide-specific rumination and lifetime past suicide attempts

Background Suicide-specific rumination, defined as rumination about one’s suicidal thoughts, intentions, and plans, and Acute Suicidal Affective Disturbance (ASAD) have each been proposed as relevant and proximal predictors of suicidal behavior. The purpose of the current study was to examine relations between suicide-specific rumination, ASAD, and previous number of lifetime suicide attempts, particularly whether ASAD […]

Attentional bias and the Suicide Status Form: Behavioral perseveration of written responses

Given the vast public health problem of suicide, the need for more effective assessment of suicidal risk is clear. The major approaches applied to this challenge include various direct approaches (e.g., suicide-focused interviews) and indirect approaches (e.g., implicit methodologies or “occult” assessments) that tend to assess an attentional bias for suicidal risk, the latter of […]

Rumination, brooding, and reflection: Prospective associations with suicide ideation and suicide attempts

Objective Rumination is often cited as a risk factor for suicide, yet few studies of rumination have utilized clinical samples, and no studies have examined its prospective association with suicide attempts. The purpose of this study was to examine concurrent and prospective associations of brooding and reflection (the two components of rumination) with suicide ideation […]

Non-suicidal self-injury in adolescence: Longitudinal associations with psychological distress and rumination

Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) constitutes a significant mental health concern that is highly prevalent in adolescence. Theoretical accounts and empirical research suggest that, in the short-term, NSSI may provide instant relief from intense psychological distress and ruminative thoughts. However, much less is known about these associations over time throughout adolescence. Therefore, we designed a three-year longitudinal […]

Common pathways to NSSI and suicide ideation: The roles of rumination and self-compassion

We investigated whether rumination and self-compassion moderate and/or mediate the relationships between negative affect and both non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide ideation. Undergraduate university students (n = 415) completed well-validated measures of negative affect, rumination, self-compassion, NSSI, and suicide ideation. Neither rumination nor self-compassion moderated associations between negative affect and NSSI and suicide ideation. However, both rumination […]

Interpersonal needs and suicide risk: The moderating roles of sex and brooding

Objectives This paper tested two moderators, brooding and participant sex, on the respective relations between thwarted belongingness (TB), perceived burdensomeness (PB), and suicide risk. Method Using a cross‐sectional design in a sample of undergraduates (N = 278), two hierarchical regression models examining the three‐way interaction between brooding, sex, and either TB or PB on suicide risk were […]

The relationship between negative cognitive styles and lifetime suicide attempts is indirect through lifetime acute suicidal affective disturbance symptoms

Previous evidence suggests an association between negative cognitive styles and suicide-related outcomes. Recently, Acute Suicidal Affective Disturbance (ASAD) was proposed to characterize the phenomenology of acute suicidal crises, with key features being the rapid onset of suicidal intent, social- or self-alienation, perceptions of intractability, and overarousal. ASAD may account for the association between negative cognitive […]

Ruminative subtypes and impulsivity in risk for suicidal behavior

Rumination has been previously linked to negative psychological outcomes, including depression and suicidal behavior. However, there has been conflicting research on whether or not two different subtypes of rumination – brooding and reflection – are more or less maladaptive. The present research sought to (1) examine whether individuals high in brooding but lower in reflection would show higher trait […]

Cognitive inflexibility and suicidal ideation: Mediating role of brooding and hopelessness

Previous research suggests that cognitive inflexibility prospectively increases vulnerability to suicidal ideation, but the specific cognitive factors that may explain the relation have not been examined empirically. The present study examined the brooding subtype of ruminationand hopelessness as potential mediators of the prospective relation between cognitive inflexibility and suicidal ideation. Fifty-six young adults who completed a […]

Brooding, inattention, and impulsivity as predictors of adolescent suicidal ideation

Although suicide remains a leading cause of death for adolescents, risk factors beyond diagnoses and suicide attempt history remain unclear. We examined whether cognitive style and temperament impact risk for an early, yet still clinically relevant and distressing, form of suicidality: active suicidal ideation. We used binary logistic regression to test whether brooding, inattention, and […]