Columbia-Suicide severity rating scale (C-SSRS)

Versions of the Scale Used in Clinical Practice The Lifetime/Recent version allows practitioners to gather lifetime history of suicidality as well as any recent suicidal ideation and/or behavior. Since Last Visit version of the scale assesses suicidality since the patientÕs last visit. This version is meant to assess patients who have completed at least one […]

A Promising Tool for Predicting Suicide: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale


Construct Development: the Suicide Trigger Scale (STS-2), a Measure of a Hypothesized Suicide Trigger State

This study aimed to develop the construct of a suicide trigger state by exploring data gathered with a novel psychometric self-report instrument, the STS-2. The scale was administed to 141 Israeli adult psychiatric patients with suicide ideation. Multiple statistical methods were used to explore construct validity & structure. Cronbach’s alpha demonstrated excellent internal consistency. Factor […]

Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Reasons for Living-Older Adults Scale: a Suicide Risk Assessment Inventory

This article presents data from two studies on the development & initial evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Reasons for Living Scale-Older Adult version. Study 1 involved instrument development with 106 community-dwelling olders adults, & initial psychometric evaluation with a second sample of 119 community-dwelling older adults. Study 2 evaluated the scale in a […]

Attitudes Towards Attempted Suicide: the Development of a Measurement Tool

This study developed, piloted, & validated a measure of health care professionals’ attitudes towards patients who have attempted suicide. A 102-item questionnaire was constructed from an existing instrument & findings from a literature review. A pilot study was carried out with a sample of 40 doctors & nurses. Questionnaires were then distributed to a sample […]

All Along the Watchtower: Suicide Risk Screening, a Pilot Study

This article describes one hospital’s inpatient admission screening process. Through an interdisciplinary team of nurses, social workers, nursing care coordination, computer clinical analyst, staff education, & management, a prescreening tool/process was developed that identified medical patients with emotional or behavioural disorders & at risk for suicide. A 4-item suicide risk tool was piloted & revised. […]

Prison Inmate Characteristics and Suicide Attempt Lethality: an Exploratory Study

This exploratory study applied a continuous rating scale of suicide attempt lethality to incidents where an inmate survived a suicide attempt. It describes the attempt incident dynamics & resulting range of lethality scores found within the study sample. It also examines the inmate adjustment & mental health characteristics that were associated with the lethality rating. […]

Suicide Risk Assessment for Police Officers (In: Suicide and Law Enforcement, edited by D C Sheehan & J I Warren)

This chapter provides a background & framework for developing a proper approach to evaluating the suicide risk potential of police officers. It reviews a number of the risk factors & instruments that might aid such an evaluation, including both multimeasure psychopathology inventories & single-scale tests. A few case examples presented typify some of the complex […]

The Identification of High-Risk Behavior That has the Potentiality of Culminating in the Covert Suicide of a law Enforcement Officer (In: Suicide and Law Enforcement, edited by D C Sheehan & J I Warren)

The disinclination to discuss suicide is compounded in the law enforcement community where officers are expected “to suck it up” & not admit to problems. The literature is replete with examples of situations where an officer most likely died by suicide but the death was classified as accidental. In addition, careful perusal of officers’ deaths […]

The Importance of Perfectionism in law Enforcement Suicide (In: Suicide and Law Enforcement, edited by D C Sheehan & J I Warren)

This chapter proposes the importance of perfectionism, rather than stress, as a crucial predictor in law enforcement suicide. The personality, character style, & training of law enforcement personnel are discussed in relation to subtypes of perfectionism. Recommendations are made to identify & measure perfectionism, including the 45-item Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale developed by Hewitt & Flett. […]

An Investigation of Interpersonal-Psychological Variables in Air Force Suicides: a Controlled-Comparison Study

This study evaluated whether Joiner’s (2005) theory could differentiate 60 United States Air Force personnel who died by suicide from a sample of 122 living active duty personnel. A new measure, the Interpersonal-Psychological Survey, was also used. Analyses of the Interpersonal-Psychological Survey support initial validation efforts to establish it as a predictive measure for suicide. […]

Assessment of Suicide: Beck’s Scales for Assessing Mood and Suicidality (IN: Assessment, Treatment, and Prevention of Suicidal Behavior, edited by R I Yufit & D Lester)


Assessing the Vital Balance in Evaluating Suicidal Potential (IN: Assessment, Treatment, and Prevention of Suicidal Behavior, edited by R I Yufit & D Lester)

The discussion in this chapter uses a theoretical basis which assumes sound mental health can be represented as an equilibrium, or vital balance. The concept is modified from the writings of Menninger & incorporates the ideas of Antonovsky & his formulations for coping with stress. The Suicide Assessment Checklist, the Coping Abilities Questionnaire, & the […]

Evaluation of Suicide Risk in Children: Psychometric Properties of the Spanish Version of the Risk of Suicide Questionnaire (RSQ)

The Risk for Suicide Questionnaire was translated into Spanish & administered to all fifth & sixth grade students at a private school in Guadalajara, Mexico whose parents had given consent for participation. Beck’s Depression & Hopelessness Inventories were also completed. The parents of children who were at suicide risk were contacted & invited to come […]

Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale

This paper reports an examination of the factor structure of Orbach’s Multi-Attitude Suicide Tendency Scale using confirmatory factor analytic techniques. Participants were 215 undergraduates. Support was found for the original factor structure, reliability, & validity of the scale. A correlated model fit the data significantly better than an uncorrelated model. Results indicate the scale is […]

“Reasons for Living” – Translation, Psychometric Evaluation and Relationships to Suicidal Behaviour in a Swedish Random Sample

A Swedish translation of the Reason for Living Inventory was examined for psychometric properties, reliability, latent structure, & convergent validity in a Swedish general population. The Inventory was distributed to 1366 randomly selected subjects aged 20-65 years in the county of Ostergotland. The results were based on 506 complete replies. The intercorrelations between the scales […]

Assessment of Suicidal Behavior: a new Instrument

This article presents information on a 3-part, self-report instrument, the Harkavy Asnis Suicide Survey, which is designed to gather detailed information regarding demographics, past suicide behaviour in patients, their families, & associates, & current suicidal behaviour. (15 refs.) JA

Getting the Best Return on Your Screening Investment: an Analysis of the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire and Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale

Data from 64 adolescent inpatients admitted for serious suicide ideation, 50 adolescent inpatients admitted following a suicide attempt, & 56 randomly selected high school controls were used to evaluate the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire & the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale – Second Edition. The hypothesis that a combination of mean scores on the two measures & […]

Secondary Prevention of Suicide

Secondary suicide prevention aims to decrease the likelihood of a suicide attempt in high-risk patients. In this article, the authors discuss recent research on the evaluation of suicidal risk & on different kinds of secondary suicide prevention interventions that aim to reduce that risk. They also indicate how these interventions are being applied currently & […]

Suicidal Ideation: the Clinical Utility of the K10

This study examined the clinical utility of the Kessler K10 psychological distress score as an indicator of suicide ideation. Suicide ideation was assessed on the basis of 4 relevant questions in the General Health Questionnaire; these were subsequently analyzed against the K10 scores. Data were collected using a risk-factor surveillance system where each month a […]

The Development and Initial Validation of the Geriatric Suicide Ideation Scale

The authors report on the development & initial validation of the Geriatric Suicide Ideation Scale. Study 1 involved development of an initial 66-item measure, administration to a heterogeneous sample of 172 adults, 65 years & older, assessment of the measure’s factor structure, & subsequent scale reduction & correlation with social desirability. Study 2 involved validation […]

Severity of Attempted Suicide as Measured by the Pierce Suicidal Intent Scale

This study characterized the severity of attempted suicide by extracting components of suicidal intent & analyzing levels of intent by gender, age, & variables indicating the severity of the attempt. Data on 469 Estonians who attempted suicide were collected & a revised version of the Pierce Suicidal Intent Scale was used. The level of suicidal […]

The Geriatric Depression Scale as a Screening Tool for Depression and Suicide Ideation: a Replication and Extention

First-time psychiatric outpatients in Hong Kong responded to the Geriatric Depression Scale (4-, 5-, & 15-item versions). The performance of the scales was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curves. Analyses were conducted separately for young-old (60-74 years) & old-old (aged 75 & older) adults. Both the 4- & the 5-item versions were found to be […]