The mask of suicide

Although it has been stated that the majority of suicidal people give definite warnings of their suicidal intention, a percentage of suicidal people may dissemble (or mask), possibly 20%. The aim of this psychological autopsy (PA) study was to explore the mask of suicide, examining age and sex of the decedent, and survivors’ relationship to […]

Psychological autopsy study and risk factors for suicide in Muslim countries

Background Suicide and risk factors have been poorly studied in the Muslim-majority countries that hinder the formulation of prevention strategies and affect suicide prevention eventually. Objectives We aimed at identifying and analyzing the psychological autopsy studies assessing the risk factors for suicide conducted in Muslim-majority countries. Methods We did a search to trace all the […]

Psychological autopsy studies of suicide in South East Asia

Background: Psychiatric disorders have been identified as an important risk factor for suicide. However, different psychological autopsy studies have revealed different prevalences at different times and places. Objective: We aimed to see the distribution of psychological autopsy studies and the prevalence of mental disorders among suicides and identify major risk factors in Southeast Asian countries. […]

The path not taken: Distinguishing individuals who die by suicide from those who die by natural causes despite a shared history of suicide attempt

Objectives This study aimed to identify variables that distinguish suicide risk among individuals with previous suicide attempts. Method Using psychological autopsy procedures, we evaluated 86 decedents who had at least one lifetime suicide attempt before eventual death by suicide (n = 65) or natural causes (n = 21). Results The Suicide Death group was more likely to be […]

Interpersonal precipitants are associated with suicide intent communication among United States Air Force suicide decedents

Background Few studies explore differences between suicide intent communicators and noncommunicators, and to date, none have examined the association between suicide precipitants and intent communication. Methods United States Air Force suicide decedents (N = 236) were categorized as suicide intent communicators or non-communicators within 30 days prior to death. The top two frequently occurring suicide precipitants, categorized […]

Gender differences in suicide-related communication of young suicide victims

Objectives There is limited insight into gender differences in suicide-related communication (SRC) in youths. SRC is defined as “the act of conveying one’s own suicide ideation, intent or behaviours to another person”. Increasing our understanding of SRC in youths will enable us to recognize and specify needs of female versus male youths. The current study explores SRC […]

Completed versus attempted suicide in psychiatric patients: A psychological autopsy study

The aims of this study were to identify specific risk factors associated with completed suicide in a sample of suicide victims diagnosed with mental illness and to discriminate completed suicides from attempted suicide in individuals who did not kill themselves for at least the next 2 years after the index attempt. Ninety-four adults (34 women; […]

Difference between suicide note leavers and other suicides: A German psychological autopsy study

Introduction Suicide notes are not only the last personal message from the suicide victim to the bereaved, but are also a valuable source for research in preventing suicides. However, not all suicide victims leave a suicide note and it is unclear whether note leavers are representative of the general population of suicide victims. Methods The […]

A quantitative and qualitative study of notes left by youth who died by suicide in Quebec from 1895 to 1985

The study of suicide notes and the evolution of their content could contribute to a better understanding of reasons conducive to suicide mortality and offer further prevention strategies. From 1895 to 1985, 706 coroner’s inquests of individuals who died by suicide and were 20 years old or younger were found in the province of Quebec. […]

The characteristics of older people suicides by sex and age subgroups

As the older population steadily grows, a corresponding increase in elderly suicides is also expected. In addition, due to differences in the physical and psychosocial characteristics of this age group, the characteristics of elderly suicides are predicted to be different to those of other groups. In this study, we aimed to report the characteristics of […]

Loneliness, hopelessness and suicide in later life: A case-controlled psychological autopsy study in rural China

Aims: Loneliness is increasingly recognised as a serious public health issue worldwide. However, there is scarce research addressing the association between loneliness and suicide in older adults in rural China. We set out to examine loneliness and other psychosocial factors in elderly suicide cases and explore their interaction effects. Methods: Using a 1 : 1 matched case-control […]

Suicide notes: Their utility in understanding the motivations behind suicide and preventing future ones

Among the different research methods on suicide notes, the theoretical conceptual approach allows a particularly thorough understanding of the suicidal act. The present study focuses on 78 suicide notes collected in Geneva, Switzerland, between 2006 and 2014. The socio-demographic and medical data of the writers’ notes were collected. The conceptual content of the notes was […]

The case for case-control studies in the field of suicide prevention.

Much of our knowledge about the risk factors for suicide comes from case–control studiesthat either use a psychological autopsy approach or are nested within large register-based cohort studies. We would argue that case–control studies are appropriate in the context of a rare outcome like suicide, but there are issues with using this design. Some of […]

A psychological and social perspective on completed suicides in Western Anatolia, Turkey: A case-control psychological autopsy study

Objective: Aim of this study was an evaluation of the completed suicide rate as well as exploring what associated psychological and social factors might have increased the risk of death from suicide. Method: The study examines all adult suicide cases in the Province of Denizli that occurred between January 2009 and December 2010. In addition […]

A multidimensional theory of suicide: A psychological autopsy corroborative study

Background: Theory is the foundation of science; this is true in suicidology. Over decades of studies of suicide notes, Leenaars developed a multidimensional model of suicide, with international (crosscultural) studies and independent verification. Aim: To corroborate Leenaars’s theory with a psychological autopsy (PA) study, examining age and sex of the decedent, and survivor’s relationship to deceased. Method: A PA study […]

Young men, masculinities, and suicide.

Young men constitute one of the highest risk groups for suicide in most countries. This gives reason to explore how meanings attached to masculinity can be evoked and handled when a young man takes his life. In-depth interviews with 5 to 8 informants for each of 10 suicides, as well as suicide notes, were analyzed […]

Alcohol involvement in suicide and self-harm: Findings from two innovative surveillance systems.

BACKGROUND: Alcohol misuse and alcohol consumption are significant risk factors for suicidal behavior. AIMS: This study sought to identify factors associated with alcohol consumption in cases of suicide and nonfatal self-harm presentations. METHOD: Suicide cases in Cork, Ireland, from September 2008 to June 2012 were identified through the Suicide Support and Information System. Emergency department […]

Psychological autopsy study comparing suicide decedents, suicide ideators, and propensity score matched controls: Results from the study to assess risk and resilience in service members (Army STARRS)

The suicide rate has increased significantly among US Army soldiers over the past decade. Here we report the first results from a large psychological autopsy study using two control groups designed to reveal risk factors for suicide death among soldiers beyond known sociodemographic factors and the presence of suicide ideation. Informants were next-of-kin and Army […]

Do undiagnosed suicide decedents have symptoms of a mental disorder?

Psychological autopsy studies consistently report that the rate of detected mental disorders among suicide decedents is below 100%. This implies three possibilities: (a) a subset of suicide decedents did not have a mental disorder at the time of death; (b) all suicide decedents suffered from a mental disorder, but some were undetected due to methodological limitations; and/or […]

Qualitative and quantitative methods of suicide research in old age.

This paper examines the merits of the qualitative and quantitative methods of suicide research in the elderly using two studies identified through a free search of the Pubmed database for articles that might have direct bearing on suicidality in the elderly. The studies have been purposively selected for critical appraisal because they meaningfully reflect the […]

Self-crash murder-suicide: Psychological autopsy essay and questions about the Germanwings crash.

This particular murder–suicide was premeditated with greatly neglected precipitating factors and high predictability. In fact, this confirms the remark by Maltsberger et al. (2015, p. 643) that: “Risk factors research does not have high predictive value.” It is a major ethical issue to discuss the limitations of suicide prevention. Contact us for a copy of […]

Factors related to suicide in LGBT populations.

There is evidence of heightened vulnerability to nonfatal suicidal behaviors among LGBT populations yet a paucity of studies into fatal behaviors. Aim: The specific aim of this article was to identify factors related to suicide in LGBT individuals in Australia. Method: The psychological autopsy (PA) method with a matched case-control study design was used. PA […]

Maladaptive perfectionism: Understanding the psychological vulnerability to suicide in terms of developmental history.