Protective factors against suicide attempt in Iranian Kurdish women: A qualitative content analysis

Background A proper understanding of the protective factors against suicide attempt can provide the basis for planning preventive interventions. This study aimed to identify protective factors against suicide attempt among women. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in Kermanshah, Iran between January and May 2021. Participants were 20 Kurdish women, survivors of suicide attempt, selected […]

A longitudinal network analysis of the interactions of risk and protective factors for suicidal potential in early adolescents

Few studies have applied the “ideation-to-action” theories and the buffering hypothesis of resilience to suicide in early adolescents, and existing research is primarily cross-sectional. This study examined the interactions between risk factors (i.e., thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and hopelessness), protective factors (i.e., resilience, self-efficacy, and subjective happiness), and suicidal potential (i.e., family distress, anxious-impulsive depression, […]

Association of religious activity with male suicide deaths

Objective To analyze the relationship between suicide in men and stratified measures of religiosity. Methods We studied 192 suicides and 81 controls (nonsuicide, sudden, or accidental death). We employed the psychological autopsy method to compile diagnoses based on DSM-IV criteria. Overall, religiosity and participation in religious associations were determined using a Likert-type scale. Given the […]

The Living Ladder: Introduction and validity over 6-month follow-up of a one-item measure of readiness to continue living in suicidal patients

Objective The ability to predict suicide outcomes is limited by the lack of consideration of protective factors. This study examined the validity of the Living Ladder, a measure of readiness to continue living among individuals thinking of suicide. Methods The Living Ladder consists of one item that assesses an individual’s readiness to continue living when […]

Entrapment and suicidal ideation: The protective roles of presence of life meaning and reasons for living

Objective The integrated motivational–volitional model of suicide proposes that feelings of entrapment play a key role in the development of suicidal ideation. The model also posits a set of motivational moderators which either facilitate or hinder the development of suicidal thinking when entrapment is present. These motivational moderators include factors such as attitudes, future goals, […]

Resilience and protective factors among refugee children post-migration to high-income countries: A systematic review

Background Increasing numbers of children have been forced to flee and seek asylum in high-income countries. Current research indicates that focussing on resilience and protective factors is an important long-term goal for positive mental health and psychological functioning of refugee children. Methods We performed a systematic review of quantitative literature regarding psychological and contextual factors […]

The role of hope and resilience in protecting against suicidal thoughts and behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic

Objective The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the mental health and wellbeing of populations across the world. This study aimed to examine: (1) which specific aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic were associated with the presence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors, and (2) the extent to which participants’ hopelessness and resilience moderated the relationship between COVID-19 related […]

Risk and protective factors associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviors among Maryland middle school students

The aim of this study was to identify independent risk and protective factors associated with self-reported suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STB) among young adolescents by examining self-report data on mental health, substance abuse, violence involvement, social and economic challenges and supports, physical health and demographics in relation to STB. Data from nearly 27,000 students who […]

Attempted suicide in American Indian and Alaska Native populations: A systematic review of research on protective factors

American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) populations contend with disproportionately high rates of suicide. The study of protective factors is essential for highlighting resilience and formulating potential interventions for suicide. We systematically review factors that are posited to protect against suicide attempts for AIAN peoples. Seventeen (12 journal articles, five theses/dissertations) articles met inclusion criteria. […]

Culture forward: A strengths and culture based tool to protect our native youth from suicide

CULTURE FORWARD was developed through an iterative, collective effort to include as many Native voices as possible across Indian Country. We spent six months conducting listening sessionswith more than 60 Native stakeholders, including tribal leaders, Native youth leaders, grassroots leaders working to prevent suicide in their communities, two-spirit leaders, Elders, traditional healers, and Native veterans/military service members. […]

Coping and suicide in college students: Does being optimistic matter?

Background: Transitioning to college life in young adulthood can represent a challenging developmental period and college students are at heightened risk for engaging in suicidality. Aims: We aimed to investigate the roles dispositional optimism and coping strategies play in suicide risk (viz., suicidality) and suicide protection (viz., reasons for living) in college students. Method: A sample of 252 American college […]

Hope as a process in understanding positive mood and suicide protection: A test of the broaden-and-build model

Background: According to the broaden-and-build model of positive mood, positive emotions are believed to broaden cognition resources and build psychological resiliency, to help incur positive psychological outcomes. Aim: We examined hope as a potential mediator of the association between positive mood and suicide protection (viz., life satisfaction and reasons for living) in adults. We hypothesized that positive mood […]

Suicide risk and protective factors: A network approach

Objective Suicide is a complex phenomenon, with numerous factors contributing to an individual’s risk of suicide. The aim of the present study was to explore how risk and protective factors for suicide interact with one another in a network sense and to determine which factors were most central to a network of these factors. Method […]

“I thought that I had to be alive to repay my parents”: Filial piety as a risk and protective factor for suicidal behavior in a qualitative study of Chinese women

Filial piety involves the Confucian view that children always have a duty to be obedient and to provide care for their parents. Filial piety has been described as both a risk and a protective factor in depression and suicide. This qualitative study aimed to explore the role of filial piety in the suicidal behavior of […]

The role of perceived and objective social connectedness on risk for suicidal thoughts and behavior in late-life and their moderating effect on cognitive deficits

Objective Impaired cognition increases suicide risk while social connectedness protects against suicide risk in late life. We examined the independent and interactive effects of social connectedness and cognition on suicide risk in late life. Methods Participants included 570 individuals aged 50+ from a late-life suicide study. The Interpersonal Support Evaluation List and Social Network Index […]

Predicting suicidal thoughts and behavior among adolescents using the risk and protective factor framework: A large-scale machine learning approach

Addressing the problem of suicidal thoughts and behavior (STB) in adolescents requires understanding the associated risk factors. While previous research has identified individual risk and protective factors associated with many adolescent social morbidities, modern machine learning approaches can help identify risk and protective factors that interact (group) to provide predictive power for STB. This study […]

Risk and protective factors for suicide among Inuit in Canada: A summary of statistics related to suicide and mental health

Key Messages • The risk of suicide is elevated among northern Inuit communities in Canada because of intergenerational trauma from colonization, marginalization and the loss of the traditional Inuit lifestyle. This trauma has created social and economic inequities among Inuit communities. • Mental distress, including problematic substance use, mental health disorders and self-harm, are important […]

Strengths-based assessment for suicide prevention: Reasons for life as a protective factor from Yup’ik Alaska native youth suicide

Suicide is the second leading cause of death among American Indian and Alaska Native youth, and within the Alaska Native youth subpopulation, the leading cause of death. In response to this public health crisis, American Indian and Alaska Native communities have created strategies to protect their young people by building resilience using localized Indigenous well-being […]

Systematic review of risk and protective factors for suicidal and self-harm behaviors among children and adolescents involved with cyberbullying

Cyberbullying is associated with increased risk of suicidal and self-harm behaviors in children and adolescents. However, no review to date has explored factors that exacerbate and mitigate this relationship. This systematic review concerns research on factors that influence the impact of cyberbullying on suicidal and self-harm behaviors. Four bibliographic databases were explored and references in […]

Protective factors as a unifying framework for strength-based intervention and culturally responsive American Indian and Alaska Native suicide prevention

The ongoing challenge of American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) youth suicide is a public health crisis of relatively recent historical origin inadequately addressed by contemporary prevention science. A promising development in AIAN suicide prevention highlights the role of protective factors. A protective factor framework adopts a social ecological perspective and community-level intervention paradigm. Emphasis […]

Body investment as a protective factor in the relationship between acquired capability for suicide and suicide attempts

Acquired capability for suicide is associated with increased suicide risk and behaviors, but little research has examined factors that may qualify this relationship. Body investment is proposed as one such factor, as it may engage self-preservation instincts and serve as a buffer to capability for suicide. It was expected that facets of body investment (body […]

Suicidal thoughts and behaviors among LGBTQ youth: Meta-analyses and a systematic review

Suicide continues to be the second-leading cause of death for all youths aged 15-24. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth are at a significantly higher risk for suicidal thoughts or behaviors (STB). Establishing and understanding correlates of STB among LGBTQ youth is one important step toward enhancing prevention, intervention, and research efforts. To […]

Risk and protective factors to LGBTQ+ youth suicide: A review of the literature

LGBTQ+ youth experience higher rates of suicidal ideation and behavior than their cisgender, heterosexual peers, and these disparities have created a need for academic exploration of the risk factors and protective factors surrounding LGBTQ+ youth suicide (Taliaferro and Muehlenkamp in Acad Pediatr 17:715–722; Toomey et al. in J Youth Adolesc 48:788–801; Ybarra et al. in: […]