The associations of cumulative adverse childhood experiences and irritability with mental disorders in detained male adolescent offenders

Background Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and psychiatric disorders are common in juvenile detainees. Emotional dysregulation resulting from cumulated ACEs may be characterized by symptoms of irritability. The present study examined whether the accumulation of ACEs, irritability, or both predicted mental disorders in incarcerated adolescents with and without controlling for one another and for socio-demographic factors. […]

Using life trajectories analysis to characterize suicide attempts in prison

Background: Suicide in prison is a major problem and several risk factors have been identified in the literature (e.g., period of incarceration, depressive disorders). Aims: The study examined the impact of several risk factors for suicide attempts before and during incarceration using life trajectory analysis of inmates by interviews with informants. Method: The lifetime of inmates with a history of […]

Adverse childhood experiences among women prisoners: Relationships to suicide attempts and drug abuse

Background: Women prisoners are known to suffer from an accumulation of factors known to increase the risk for several major health problems. This study examines the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and the relationship between such experiences and suicide attempts and drug use among incarcerated women in Norway. Methods: A total of 141 women […]

Suicides among incarcerated persons in 18 U.S. States: Findings from the National Violent Death Reporting System, 2003-2014

Using data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (2003–2014), this study examined the characteristics and contributing circumstances of suicides in correctional facilities. χ2 and logistic regression analyses revealed that, compared to nonincarcerated suicide decedents, incarcerated suicide decedents had significantly lower odds of positive toxicology for substances but significantly higher odds of substance abuse problems. Descriptive […]

Suicide completion among incarcerated women

Little is known about factors that contribute to suicide completion among women who are incarcerated. The current study used data from the National Violent Death Reporting System to examine contributing factors for 176 suicide deaths from 2003 to 2015 in 21 states among women who were incarcerated. Common circumstances for suicide completion included mental health […]

Identifying individuals at risk of suicide and self-harm in jail

Suicide is the leading cause of death in America’s jails and the rate of suicide is nearly three times higher in jails than in prisons or the general public. Fatal suicides represent a small proportion of individuals who threaten or attempt suicide while incarcerated, or otherwise engage in serious self-harm. Yet, there is little research […]

Suicide rates in Nordic prisons 2000-2016

Objective To compare suicide rates of people in prison and the general population in the Nordic countries. Methods Data on deaths by suicide and person-years for people in prison and the general population were obtained for the Nordic countries during 2000–2016. Age-standardized rate ratios were calculated. Results The suicide rate in the Nordic countries overall […]

Psychological and sociological perspectives on suicide: A multi-level examination of suicidal thoughts and attempted suicide among prisoners

Informed by psychological and sociological perspectives, the present study aimed to improve knowledge on the nature of suicidal thoughts and attempted suicide among adult prisoners. Analyzing data from a nationally representative sample of 18,185 prisoners housed in 287 state and 39 federal prisons across the United States highlight: (a) key micro-level factors associated with suicidal […]

Personal, criminal and social predictors of suicide attempts in prison

Previous epidemiological analyses indicate that specific demographic and criminal factors might be associated with suicide attempts during incarceration. However, there is a relative lack of research examining the role of social variables such as perceived social support. Data from 943 male inmates enrolled from three correctional facilities in Spain were collected. Participants completed self-report measures […]

Multidimensional approach to suicide prevention in jails and prisons: The best defense against liability lawsuits

Inmates in jails and prisons are a high-risk group for suicide. Often, legal claims of medical negligence and §1983 based on deliberate indifference by the correctional officials follow. Unique stable and dynamic factors and circumstances and their interaction explain most suicides. A systematic suicide screening using a well-designed suicide screening questionnaire that captures known risk […]

Suicide after reception into prison: A case-control study examining the differences in early and late events

Objective Prisoners constitute a high-risk group for suicide, with suicide rates about 5 to 8 times higher than in the general population. The first weeks of imprisonment are a particularly vulnerable time, but there is limited knowledge about the risk factors for either early or late suicide events. Methods Based on a national total sample […]

The association between childhood trauma and lifetime suicide attempts among a sample of male prisoners: A pilot observational study

Background: Prisoners have higher rates of suicide attempts compared with general population. A history of childhood trauma (CT) is common among incarcerated subjects and it is a well-known risk factor for lifetime suicide attempts. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to investigate whether lifetime suicide attempts may be related to the exposition to CT among […]

The association between childhood trauma and lifetime suicide attempts among a sample of male prisoners: A pilot observational study

Background Prisoners have higher rates of suicide attempts compared with general population. A history of childhood trauma (CT) is common among incarcerated subjects and it is a well-known risk factor for lifetime suicide attempts. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to investigate whether lifetime suicide attempts may be related to the exposition to CT […]

Impulsiveness and suicide in male offenders: Examining the buffer roles of regulatory emotional self-efficacy and flourishing

Objectives: Although impulsiveness has been recognized as a risk factor for suicide, few studies have explored how to protect offenders with impulsiveness from the risk of suicide. This study aims to examine the relationships among impulsiveness, suicide risk, regulatory emotional self-efficacy (RESE), and flourishing, focusing on the moderating effects of RESE and flourishing in the relationship […]

Suicide completion among incarcerated women

Little is known about factors that contribute to suicide completion among women who are incarcerated. The current study used data from the National Violent Death Reporting System to examine contributing factors for 176 suicide deaths from 2003 to 2015 in 21 states among women who were incarcerated. Common circumstances for suicide completion included mental health […]

Social support and suicidal ideation among prisoners with major depressive disorder

This study explored the impact of social support on suicidal ideation in 169 prisoners with major depressive disorder, accounting for known demographic, criminological, and clinical risk factors. Greater social support was associated with a lower likelihood of the presence of current suicide ideation. This effect remained significant even after adjusting for other significant predictors of […]

Suicide in prisons: Active deviation profile

The interpretative path of suicide finds its maximum expression in the theorizations of Èmile Durkheim who classifies suicide as a social pathology and as a result of a general social fragility. The more generic theme of “deaths” in prison began to arouse the interest of scholars around the mid-19th century, a period in which “suicide […]

Prison staff’s views and understanding of the role of emotions in prisoner suicide and violence

Suicide and violence are a major concern in prisons, and it has been suggested that alexithymia may be associated with these behaviours. Alexithymia can be defined as the inability to identify and describe emotions. This study aimed to explore staff’s understanding and attitudes about identifying and discussing emotions in prisoner suicide and violence. Twenty prison […]

The relationship between age and suicidal thoughts and attempted suicide among prisoners

Background: Suicide is a major problem across the lifespan, yet rates are highest among middle-aged and older adults; a trend which remains relatively stable across varying sociological settings, including prisons. Despite this understanding, there is limited knowledge on the nature of suicidal thoughts and attempts among older prisoners, especially with respect to how they compare […]

Adverse childhood experiences: A retrospective study to understand their associations with lifetime mental health diagnosis, self-harm or suicide attempt, and current low mental wellbeing in a male Welsh prison population

Background: Prisoners are at increased risk of poor mental health and self-harming behaviours, with suicide being the leading cause of death in custody. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as child maltreatment are strong predictors of poor mental health and wellbeing yet despite high levels of ACEs in offender populations, relatively few studies have explored the […]

Assessing vulnerability to risk of suicide and self-harm in prisoners: A Rasch analysis of the suicide concerns for offenders in the prison environment (SCOPE-2)

Background With increasing levels of suicide and self-harm behaviour in the criminal justice system professionals would benefit from a tool that can identify individuals who may be at risk of self-harm and/or suicidal behaviour. Method The Suicide Concerns for Offenders in the Prison Environment (SCOPE) tool was originally devised and validated in six UK prisons […]

An exploratory analysis of violent offending and the acquired capability for suicide in male prisoners

Recently, the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide has offered some understanding as to why inmates are at a disproportionately high risk to die by suicide. The present study was designed to investigate how one aspect of the theory, the acquired capability for suicide, may differ between prison inmates with violent offenses versus those without. Data from […]

National response plan for suicide prevention in corrections

Through the Suicide Prevention Resource Guide, the National Commission on Correctional Health Care and the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention have joined forces to work toward reducing the incidence of suicide in jails and prisons. The guide focuses on three areas key to suicide prevention in corrections: assessment, intervention and treatment, and training. The aim […]