Suicide risk screening and assessment before and after the COVID-19 pandemic in new inmates

Background: Suicide is the main cause of death in Italian prisons. The largest number of inmates who killed themselves was recorded during three years of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to explore psychosocial risk factors for suicide among inmates incarcerated before and after the onset of COVID-19. Methods: At prison reception, inmates underwent clinical […]

Managed care updates of subscriber jail release to prompt community suicide prevention: Clinical trial protocol

Background: Recent jail detention is a marker for trait and state suicide risk in community-based populations. However, healthcare providers are typically unaware that their client was in jail and few post-release suicide prevention efforts exist. This protocol paper describes an effectiveness-implementation trial evaluating community suicide prevention practices triggered by advances in informatics that alert CareSource, a […]

Suicide risk in male incarcerated individuals in Spain: Clinical, criminological and prison‑related correlates

Background Prison suicide is a complex phenomenon that may be influenced by individual, clinical, social and environmental factors. In Spain, few studies have explored the relationship with institutional, prison-related variables. The aim of this study is to examine correlates of suicide in a sample of male incarcerated individuals from 5 Spanish penitentiary centers. Methods This […]

Extreme heat and suicide watch incidents among incarcerated men

Objective  To examine associations of extreme heat, solitary confinement, and an indicator of suicidal behaviors among incarcerated men in a Deep South US prison system. Design, Setting, and Participants  This longitudinal case series panel study included adult men in prisons in Louisiana, a state with one of the largest prison systems in the United States that has […]

What emotions do male prisoners experience in the lead-up to suicide and violence? A participatory visual method study

Rates of suicide and violence are higher amongst male prisoners than the general population. This study aimed to explore the emotional experiences of male prisoners in the distal and immediate lead-up to acts of suicide and violence. Nine male prisoners created drawings of their emotions in the lead-up to an act of suicide and/or violence. […]

Maternal incarceration increases the risk of self-harm but not suicide: A matched cohort study

Aims: Children of incarcerated mothers are at increased risk of experiencing multiple adversity such as poverty, mental illness and contact with child protection services (CPS), including being taken into out of home care (OOHC). However, little is known about whether these children are at increased risk of suicide or self-harm compared to children not exposed […]

Can theory predict the process of suicide on entry to prison? Predicting dynamic risk factors for suicide ideation in a high-risk prison population

Background: Each year approximately 110,000 people are imprisoned in England and Wales and new prisoners remain one of the highest risk groups for suicide across the world. The reduction of suicide in prisoners remains difficult as assessments and interventions tend to rely on static risk factors with few theoretical or integrated models yet evaluated. Aims: To identify […]

Witnessing suicide-related behavior in prison: A qualitative study of young male prisoners in England

Background: Rates of suicide and suicide-related behavior (SRB) are high in prison. Those witnessing such behavior may develop psychological morbidity. Most previous studies have been quantitative. Little has been written about the witnesses’ qualitative experience. Aims: The aim of the study was to explore, through interview and then thematic analysis, the core concerns of those witnessing another’s […]

A typology of male prisoners making near-lethal suicide attempts

Background: Prisoners are at high risk of suicide. Aims: This study aimed to develop a typology of prison suicide. Method: We interviewed 60 male prisoners who made near-lethal suicide attempts in prison to obtain quantitative and qualitative data regarding psychiatric, psychological, social, and criminological factors. We analyzed this information to develop a typology to classify suicidal prisoners and […]

People in custody with a suicidal history: An ideation-to-action perspective involving individuals incarcerated in two U.S. jails

Objective: Despite high suicide mortality in U.S. jails, little is known about the cognitive (ideation) and behavioral (attempt) spectrum of suicide risk in this population. Identifying factors associated with the development of suicidal ideation, as well as the translation of thoughts to acts of suicide, is important for suicide prevention. Method: Using data from a cross-sectional study […]

Suicidal ideation and its correlates in prisoners: A comparative study in China

Background: Suicide is one of the leading causes of prisoners’ death, and, as a group, inmates have higher suicide rates than their community counterparts. However, the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Chinese inmates and their risks of suicide remain unknown. Aims: This study investigates the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Chinese incarcerated populations and its risk and […]

Addressing the mental health needs of inmates through education for correctional officers: A narrative review

Introduction: People with mental illness are overrepresented in correctional facilities. Correctional officers (COs) lack education to respond to inmates with mental illness. A review was conducted of mental health education programs for COs to identify factors related to effectiveness. Methods: Medical and criminal justice databases were searched for articles describing mental health education for COs. Studies including […]

The impact of correctional officer gender on prison suicide

Correctional officers are critical members of the prison community. However, scholarship rarely considers how correctional officers contribute to prison outcomes instead largely focusing on importation (individual) and deprivation (organizational) factors related to the incarcerated population. This is also true regarding how scholars and practitioners approach suicide committed by incarcerated people, one of the leading causes […]

Suicidal ideation in a sample of incarcerated men

This article examined the factors associated with thoughts of ending life in a sample of incarcerated men. Data were obtained from the Cancer Risk in Incarcerated Men Study, a pilot study designed to examine cancer health disparities and cancer health education in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of male smokers in three state prisons in the […]

Suicide ideation among male prisoners: Preliminary evidence that psychopathic traits are indirectly linked to suicide ideation through thwarted interpersonal needs

Background The relation between psychopathic traits and suicide ideation (SI) is frequently discussed but little research has examined potential mechanisms underlying this association. The interpersonal theory of suicide (ITS) proposes two mechanisms in the pathogenesis of suicidal desire: thwarted belongingness (TB) and perceived burdensomeness (PB). This study cross-sectionally tested TB and PB as possible explanatory […]

Contact with mental health services after acute care for self-harm among adults released from prison: A prospective data linkage study

Objective To determine the care pathway and rate and predictors of mental health care contact within seven days of discharge from acute care following self-harm. Method In a representative cohort of adults released from prisons in Queensland, Australia, we probabilistically linked person-level, statewide ambulance, emergency department, and hospital records, both prospectively and retrospectively, and community […]

What differentiates prisoners who attempt suicide from those who experience suicidal ideation? A nationally representative study

Objective Many people who think about suicide do not engage in suicidal behavior. Identifying risk factors implicated in the process of behavioral enaction is crucial for suicide prevention, particularly in high-risk groups such as prisoners. Method Cross-sectional data were drawn from a nationally representative sample of 17,891 prisoners (79% men) in the United States. We […]

Health care disparities for incarcerated adults after a suicide attempt

Objective Incarcerated adults have high rates of fatal and nonfatal suicidal behaviors. Suicide prevention recommendations stress the need for the provision of health care for incarcerated adults after suicide attempts, yet prison policies and practices often focus instead on punitive responses to suicidal behaviors. Existing research is limited regarding factors that predict the provision of […]

Exploring the relationship between domestic violence perpetration and suicidal behavior in male prisoners

This study is the first to explore the relationship between domestic violence perpetration and suicidal behavior in prisoners in England and Wales. The nature of this relationship is unclear, however, understanding and reducing suicide in prisons is a critical issue for frontline staff and policy makers. Eight participants with a history of suicide attempts and […]

Re-examining the dual harm profile: An assessment using US prison population-level data

Dual harm behaviour has recently gained scholarly attention. Dual harm centres on a subset of people who display violent and self-harming behaviour. This study re-examines the differential profile characteristics identified in Europe for those who dual harm, using international data featuring a population study of a state prison system in the south-eastern United States. Three […]

Sex differences in suicide, suicidal ideation, and self‑harm after release from incarceration: A systematic review and meta‑analysis

Purpose People released from incarceration are at increased risk of suicide compared to the general population. We aimed to synthesise evidence on the incidence of and sex differences in suicide, suicidal ideation, and self-harm after release from incarceration. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Web of Science and PubMed between 1 January 1970 and 14 […]

The associations of cumulative adverse childhood experiences and irritability with mental disorders in detained male adolescent offenders

Background Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and psychiatric disorders are common in juvenile detainees. Emotional dysregulation resulting from cumulated ACEs may be characterized by symptoms of irritability. The present study examined whether the accumulation of ACEs, irritability, or both predicted mental disorders in incarcerated adolescents with and without controlling for one another and for socio-demographic factors. […]

Using life trajectories analysis to characterize suicide attempts in prison

Background: Suicide in prison is a major problem and several risk factors have been identified in the literature (e.g., period of incarceration, depressive disorders). Aims: The study examined the impact of several risk factors for suicide attempts before and during incarceration using life trajectory analysis of inmates by interviews with informants. Method: The lifetime of inmates with a history of […]