Prevalence and predictors of suicidality among adults initiating office-based buprenorphine

Background: Individuals who have substance use disorders may have an elevated risk of suicidality. This study sought to examine the prevalence of, and identify factors associated with, suicidality in adults with opioid use disorder (OUD) initiating office-based buprenorphine treatment. Methods: Individuals were eligible to participate if they had OUD and had initiated treatment in the […]

Posttraumatic stress disorder, suicide, and unintended overdose death in later life: A national cohort study of veterans aged 50 and older

Background/objectives: Although studies have shown posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with risk of suicide, the relationship in later life, especially for overdose death, remains unclear. Thus, the aim of the current study was to determine associations between PTSD, suicide, and unintended overdose death in mid- to late-life. Methods: A nationwide cohort study integrating Department of Veterans Affairs’ […]

Multiple suicide attempts associated with addiction to tramadol

Background The opioid tramadol is used as analgesic drug, and more recently was also proposed for the management of major depressive disorder. However, growing evidence suggests a link between opioid system dysfunction and suicidal behaviors, raising the question of tramadol use in view of the high addictive and suicidal risk. Here, we present the case […]

Association between buprenorphine for opioid use disorder and mortality risk

Introduction: Veterans with opioid use disorder have an increased risk of suicide and overdose compared with the general population. Buprenorphine, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration–approved medication to treat opioid use disorder, has shown benefits, including decreased risk of illicit drug use and overdose. This study assesses the mortality outcomes with buprenorphine pharmacotherapy among Veterans […]

Using mindfulness‑based cognitive therapy to prevent suicide among high suicide–risk patients who also misuse opioids: A preliminary probe of feasibility and effectiveness

Knowledge of how to effectively prevent suicide attempt (SA) in high suicide–risk patients who also misuse opioids is limited. In a subset of data from 36 participants with baseline opioid misuse in a randomized clinical trial testing adjunctive mindfulness-based cognitive therapy to prevent suicide among high suicide–risk veterans (n = 18 per treatment condition), MBCT-S reduced the […]

Profiles of patients with opioid use disorders presenting a history of suicidal ideations and attempts

Suicide rates are higher for people with an opioid use disorder, compared to the general population. This study aims to characterize opioid agonist treatment entrants who present a history of suicidal ideations or suicide attempts, according to concurrent comorbidity profiles, in an opioid use disorder treatment facility. A chart review design was used. Data was […]

National trends in suicide thoughts and behavior among US adults with opioid use disorder from 2015 to 2020

Introduction Suicide thoughts and behavior (STB) are associated with premature mortality and is disproportionately represented among those with opioid use disorder (OUD). Recent trends in STB among those with OUD are lacking. We investigated trends in STB among US adults with versus without OUD using six waves of cross-sectional, nationally-representative, epidemiological data. Methods Data came […]

Suicidal motivations reported by opioid overdose survivors: A cross-sectional study of adults with opioid use disorder

Background: Prior studies in heroin use disorder reported low rates (10%) of suicidal intention with non-fatal opioid overdose but did not assess dimensional ratings of suicidal ideation. This study aims to quantify the frequency and intensity of ratings of desire to die and perceived overdose risk proximal to the most recent opioid overdose event among individuals […]

Suicide by opioid: Exploring the intentionality of the act

Opioid toxicity can result in life-threatening respiratory depression. Opioid-overdose mortality in the United States is high and increasing, but it is difficult to determine what proportion of those deaths might actually be suicides. The exact number of Americans who died of an opioid overdose but whose deaths might be classified as suicide remains unknown. It is important […]

Housing First combined with Suicide Treatment Education and Prevention (HOME + STEP): Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Background Youth experiencing homelessness are at high risk for suicide, yet few studies have evaluated risk reduction interventions targeting suicidal ideation in this vulnerable population. A comprehensive approach to risk-reduction is needed that addresses basic needs and provides targeted interventions for those at highest risk. The protocol described builds on the design of the first […]

Characteristics of suicides and toxicology in a cohort of individuals with opioid use disorder

Suicide in patients with opioid use disorder (OUD) is a complex issue. In addition to accidental intoxications, a higher prevalence of fatal suicides in patients with OUD can be found compared to the general population. In this study, suicides with a diagnosis of OUD documented in the project “Suicides, A National Survey” were extracted from […]

Healing the whole human being: Realist review of best practices and contextual factors for preventing & treating opioid misuse in Indigenous contexts in Alberta

Key Messages • Colonization and resulting traumas directly impact addictions & mental health among Indigenous people, perpetuating stigma, misinformation & mistrust around accessing addictions services • Improving coordination between all levels of healthcare (e.g., primary/tertiary) and service domains (e.g., residential treatment, incarceration to community & vice versa) is key to sustained treatment outcomes Implications • […]

Association of opioids prescribed to family members with opioid overdose among adolescents and young adults

Importance  Family members are cited as a common source of prescription opioids used for nonmedical reasons. However, the overdose risk associated with exposure to opioids prescribed to family members among adolescents and young adults is not well established. Objective  To assess the association of opioids prescribed to family members with pharmaceutical opioid overdose among youth. Design, Setting, […]

The relationship between self-harming behavior, suicide attempt history adn defense mechanisms in patients with opioid-use disorder.

This study showed that immature defense styles were used more frequently by patients with a history of SHB and SA, and a history of SA was associated with higher anxiety and depression scores; SHB history was used as a kind of coping mechanism and was not associated with anxiety and depression scores in OUD. Association […]

The relationship between self-harming behavior, suicide attempt history and defense mechanisms in patients with opioid-use disorder

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between defense mechanisms and a history of self-harming behaviors (SHB) and suicide attempts (SA) in patients with opioid-use disorder (OUD). Method: The study group consisted of 100 inpatients diagnosed with OUD. A Sociodemographic and Clinical Data Form, Defense Style Questionnarie-40 (DSQ-40), Beck Depression Inventory […]

The moderating effect of psychedelics on the prospective relationship between prescription opioid use and suicide risk among marginalized women

BACKGROUND/AIMS:: Given high rates of depression and suicide among marginalized women, and increasing calls to integrate trauma-informed biomedical and community-led structural interventions, this study longitudinally examines the potential moderating effect of psychedelic use on the relationship between other illicit drug use and suicide risk. METHODS:: Data (2010-2017) were drawn from a community-based, prospective open cohort […]

Prescription opioid and benzodiazepine misuse is associated with suicidal ideation in older adults

OBJECTIVES: Suicide in older adults is a major public health issue. Past research across the US adult population has linked prescription medication misuse with suicidal ideation. No work has evaluated associations between prescription opioid or benzodiazepine misuse and suicidal ideation in older adults, and this work aimed to address that gap. METHODS/DESIGN: Data were from […]

Death ambivalence and treatment seeking: Suicidality in opiate addiction

Rates of suicide and opiate overdose have recently skyrocketed in the USA. In light of impulsivity and impaired motivation common in people with substance use disorders, suicidality is common in addiction. Recent findings Chart review surveys indicate two primary suicidal populations that are important to distinguish for clinical practice and healthcare policy. One group is […]

Medications for alcohol and opioid use disorders and risk of suicidal behavior, accidental overdoses, and crime

Objective: The authors examined associations between medications for alcohol and opioid use disorders (acamprosate, naltrexone, methadone, and buprenorphine) and suicidal behavior, accidental overdoses, and crime. Method: In this total population cohort study, 21,281 individuals who received treatment with at least one of the four medications between 2005 and 2013 were identified. Data on medication use […]

Opioids and substances of misuse among First Nations People in Alberta: Alberta Report, 2017.

Apparent accidental opioid toxicity deaths  Rates of apparent accidental opioid drug toxicity deaths per 100,000 were three times higher among First Nations people compared to Non-First Nations people from January 1, 2016 to March 31, 2017.  First Nations people represented 12 per cent of all apparent accidental opioid toxicity deaths in Alberta from January […]

Healthcare system-wide implementation of opioid-safety guideline recommendations: The case of urine drug screening and opioid-patient suicide- and overdose-related events in the Veterans Health Administration.

This study provides an example of how healthcare system-wide progress in implementation of opioid-therapy guideline recommendations can be longitudinally assessed and then related to subsequent opioid-prescribed patient health and safety outcomes. Using longitudinal linear mixed effects analyses, we determined that in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system (n = 141 facilities), over the 4-year interval […]

Prevalence and key covariates of non-medical prescription opioid use among the general secondary student and adult populations in Ontario, Canada.