Potential neuropsychological mechanism involved in the transition from suicide ideation to action: A resting-state fMRI study implicating the insula

Background: Understanding the neural mechanism underlying the transition from suicidal ideation to action is crucial but remains unclear. To explore this mechanism, we combined resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) and computational modeling to investigate differences between those who attempted suicide(SA) and those who hold only high levels of suicidal ideation(HSI). Methods: A total of 120 MDD patients were […]

Characterizing the temporal dynamics of intrinsic brain activities in depressed adolescents with prior suicide attempts

Converging evidence has revealed disturbances in the corticostriatolimic system are associated with suicidal behaviors in adults with major depressive disorder. However, the neurobiological mechanism that confers suicidal vulnerability in depressed adolescents is largely unknown. A total of 86 depressed adolescents with and without prior suicide attempts (SA) and 47 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional imaging […]

Will new insights into neural networks help us improve our models of suicidal behavior?

Suicidal behavior is associated with structural changes in cortical areas of the brain. For instance, there is an intriguing study by Benedetti and colleagues (2011) who, in patients with past suicide attempts, found reduced gray matter volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and the basal ganglia – and that lithium treatment […]

Brain imaging: Healthy networks for suicide prevention

In an editorial in this journal some years ago, Mann (2005) suggested that brain imaging is a promising direction for measuring the predisposition toward suicidal behavior. Since then, there has been a  proliferation of imaging studies in both psychiatry and neuroscience, reflecting the increasing popularity of brain-disease models of psychiatric disorders. The hope is that […]

Suicide, neuroinflammation and other physiological alterations

Suicide is considered one of the major public health problems worldwide, being the second leading cause of death in the 15–29 age group. It is estimated that every 40s someone in the world commits suicide. The social taboo surrounding this phenomenon as well as the fact that suicide prevention measures currently fail to avoid deaths […]

Association of 5α-reductase inhibitors with dementia, depression, and suicide

Importance  In recent decades, there has been increased interest in the possible adverse neurological effects of 5α-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs), which have been used mainly for benign prostatic hyperplasia and androgenic alopecia. Numerous studies and reports have indicated associations of 5-ARIs with depression and suicide. However, most of these studies had methodological shortcomings, and very little is […]

Suicidal behavior: Advances in clinical and neurobiological research and improvement of prevention strategies

Suicide is the 14th leading cause of death worldwide. It is responsible for 1%-5% of all mortality. This article highlights the latest developments in universal, selective, and indicated prevention strategies. Concerning universal suicide prevention, current research has shown that strategies such as restricting access to lethal means (e.g., control of analgesics and hot-spots for suicide by […]

Suicide ideation and neurocognition among 9- and 10- year old children in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study

Objective During the past decade, the pediatric suicide rate has nearly tripled. Yet, little is known about suicide behavior (SB) in children. Identification of risk factors associated with SB during childhood may be critical to preventing future attempts. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between neurocognitive performance and suicide ideation (SI) […]

Neurobiology of suicide in children and adolescents: Implications for assessment and treatment (IN: Youth Suicide Prevention and Intervention, edited by J.P. Ackerman & L.M. Horowitz)

Pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatment of children and adolescents with suicidal thoughts and behavior have lagged behind the already sparse treatments for suicidal adults, leaving many at-risk youths undertreated. The following is a review of the neurobiological research literature focused on suicide risk in children and adolescents. Topics include the relationship of suicide risk to neuroimaging […]

Suicide ideation and neurocognition among 9- and 10-year old children in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study

During the past decade, the pediatric suicide rate has nearly tripled. Yet, little is known about suicide behavior (SB) in children. Identification of risk factors associated with SB during childhood may be critical to preventing future attempts. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between neurocognitive performance and suicide ideation (SI) in […]

The role of the lateral habenula in suicide: A call for further exploration

Despite decades of significant effort in research, policy, and prevention, suicide rates have continued to rise to the current peak of 14.6 per 100,000 deaths. This has resulted in a concerted effort to identify biomarkers associated with suicidal behavior in the brain, to provide predictions that are better than the chance of discerning who will […]

Neural activity across the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and risk for suicidal ideation and self-injury

The current study investigated the neural correlates of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal ideation across the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Two-hundred ninety-six undergraduates solved anagram tasks while being monitored by a functional near-infrared spectroscopy device, and completed a questionnaire assessing behaviors and symptoms. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed location-specific changes in neural activity based on […]

Examining the neurobiology of non-suicidal self-injury in children and adolescents: The role of reward responsivity

Although prior work has shown heightened response to negative outcomes and reduced response to positive outcomes in youth with a history of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), little is known about the neural processes underlying these responses. Thus, this study examined associations between NSSI engagement and functional activation in specific regions of interest (ROIs) and whole-brain connectivity […]

The role of inflammation in suicidal behaviour

Objective Over the past decade, clinical data have accumulated showing that inflammation might contribute to the pathophysiology of suicide. To evaluate the associations and to identify the support for pathways linking inflammatory processes with suicidal behaviour, a comprehensive review of the literature was undertaken. Method The search terms ‘cytokine’, ‘risk factors’, ‘kynurenine’, ‘asthma’, ‘allergy’, ‘autoimmunity’, […]

Chromosome 22 deletions and sucidal behavior in schizophrenia.

Background: Studies have shown that the overall copy number variant (CNV) load is associated with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that is frequently associated with suicidal behavior. Methods: We recruited 263 patients with schizophrenia from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. The Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale was used to assess the presence of lifetime suicide […]

Epigenetic marks in suicide: A review

Suicide is a complex phenomenon and a global public health problem that involves several biological factors that could contribute to the pathophysiology of suicide. There is evidence that epigenetic factors influence some psychiatric disorders, suggesting a predisposition to suicide or suicidal behavior. Here, we review studies of molecular mechanisms of suicide in an epigenetic perspective […]

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression severity in sexually assaulted women: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis alterations

Background Sexual assault is implicated in several adverse psychological and physical health outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Neurobiological research has shown variations related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, immune alterations, metabolic function, and brain circuitry. Although these mechanisms have been extensively studied, the results have demonstrated different outcomes in PTSD. Methods We […]

The elusive phenotype of preadolescent suicidal thoughts and behaviors: Can neuroimaging deliver on its promise?

Lifetime suicidal thoughts and behaviors were assessed in a large sample (N=7,994) of children ages 9–10 years recruited through the Adolescent Brain Cognition Development (ABCD) project. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors were most closely associated with child psychopathology, family conflict, and parental psychopathology. The strongest neural correlate was an association between suicidal thoughts and behaviors and […]

Suicide risk and addiction: The impact of alcohol and opioid use disorders

Purpose of review: Suicide is a major public health concern and a leading cause of death in the US. Alcohol and opioid use disorders (AUD/OUD) significantly increase risk for suicidal ideation, attempts, and death, and are the two most frequently implicated substances in suicide risk. We provide a brief overview of shared risk factors and pathways […]

Evaluation of BDNF as a biomarker for impulsivity in a psychiatric population

Impulsivity is an important risk factor for suicide and therefore, identifying biomarkers associated with impulsivity could be important in evaluating psychiatric patients. Currently, assessment of impulsivity is based solely on clinical evaluation. In this study, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a nerve growth factor, was evaluated as a potential biomarker for impulsivity. We hypothesize that elevated […]

Exploratory analysis of behavioural impulsivity, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and resting-state frontal EEG activity associated with non-suicidal self-injury in patients with mood disorder

Introduction: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a rapidly increasing mental health problem that requires more clinical attention. In this study, we aimed to explore the biobehavioral markers of NSSI in participants with mood disorders. Methods: A total of 45 participants with mood disorders (bipolar I, II, and major depressive disorder) were included in the study. Behavioral […]

Abnormal brain activity in adolescents with Internet addiction who attempt suicide: An assessment using functional magnetic resonance imaging

Internet addiction is associated with an increased risk of suicidal behavior and can lead to brain dysfunction among adolescents. However, whether brain dysfunction occurs in adolescents with Internet addiction who attempt suicide remains unknown. This observational cross-sectional study enrolled 41 young Internet addicts, aged from 15 to 20 years, from the Department of Psychiatry, the […]

The neuroscience of suicidal behavior

Nearly one million people take their own lives each year world-wide – however, contrary to popular belief, suicide can be prevented. While suicide is commonly thought to be an understandable reaction to severe stress, it is actually an abnormal reaction to regular situations. Something more than unbearable stress is needed to explain suicide, and neuroscience […]