Menstrual cycle effects on mental health outcomes: A meta-analysis

The premenstrual phase of cycle has long been associated with a constellation of health symptoms for women. However, there has been no recent quantitative review of severe mental health outcomes as a function of the menstrual cycle. We examine cycle influences on completed suicides, suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, and psychiatric admissions, and contrast these with […]

Association of menstruation cycle with completed suicide: A hospital-based case-control study

The purpose of the study was to determine the phases of the menstrual cycle in the reproductive age group of females who committed suicide as compared with a control group of females who died from causes other than suicide. The study included 86 cases in the suicidal group and 80 cases in the non-suicidal group. […]

Menarche and menstrual problems are associated with non-suicidal self-injury in adolescent girls.

Menstrual problems and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) are common in adolescent girls. This study examined whether onset of menstruation and menstrual problems were related to NSSI in Chinese female adolescents. A total of 5696 adolescent girls participated in the baseline survey of Shandong Adolescent Behavior and Health Cohort (SABHC) study in Shandong, China. A structured questionnaire […]

Premenstrual Symptoms and Luteal Suicide Attempts

In a general hospital, 125 fertile female suicide attempters (& 83 blood donors as controls) with regular menstrual cycles were prospectively studied. A retrospective diagnosis of premenstrual dysphoric disorder was made. Attempts during the luteal phase were not more frequent in females with premenstrual dysphoric disorder than in those without. As expected, there was a […]

A Pilot Study on a Gene-Hormone Interaction in Female Suicide Attempts

In a first set of analyses, an association between menses & suicide attempts was replicated. According to the polymorphism of the serotonin transporter promoter area, subjects could be classified as S individuals (s/s or s/l) or L individuals (l/l). This third set of analyses tested for an interaction between the same polymorphism & low hormonal […]

Menstruation and Suicide: a Histopathological Study

This study examined whether the menstruation cycle impacts on suicide. 56 autopsies on Indian females who died by suicide were performed & matched to a control group of 44 females who had died from other causes. Results show that 25% of women of who died by suicide were menstruating at the time, compared to 4.5% […]

The Possible Factors Affecting Suicide Attempts in the Different Phases of the Menstrual Cycle

This study investigated whether there is a relationship between the menstrual cycle & suicide attempts, & determined the factors affecting suicide attempts in different phases of the menstrual cycle. The study sample included 52 women admitted to an emergency room because of a suicide attempt. The incidence of suicide attempts in menstrual follicular phase was […]

Suicide and Gender: Cultural Factors


Suicidal Behaviour and the Menstrual Cycle


Premenstrual Disorders: Bridging Research and Clinical Reality

Women were recruited from 6 primary care obstetric-gynecological practices for participation in an open trial assessing the effectiveness of a serotonin reuptake inhibitor as a treatment for subsyndromal (3-4 symptoms) & syndromal (> 4 symptoms) premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). 24% of women with possible PMDD endorsed suicidal thoughts at any level (several days, more than […]

Association Between the Menses and Suicide Attempts: a Replication Study

Based on their own earlier findings, the authors tested their hypothesis that the proportion of suicide attempters during the menses is significantly higher than the expected probability in the general population using a replication naturalistic study of 120 fertile adult female suicide attempters with regular menstruation cycles during a 1-year period in the emergency room […]

Premenstrual Symptoms: Prevalence and Severity in an Adolescent Sample

The purpose of this study was to survey & compare the prevalence & severity of premenstrual symptoms of younger (13-15 years) & older (16-18 years) adolescents, based on both chronological & gynecological age. A subset of adolescents reported symptoms of aberrant behavior, such as missing time at school or becoming violent with people or things, […]

Influence of Psychiatric Diagnoses on the Relationship Between Suicide Attempts and the Menstrual Cycle

This letter explores the interaction of psychiatric diagnoses on the relationship between menstrual cycle phase & suicide attempts. The authors performed a new group analyses on an already published study. (5 refs)

A Case of Monthly Unipolar Psychotic Depression With Suicide Attempt by Self-Burning: Selective Response to Bupropion Treatment

A second case of monthly, unipolar, psychotic depression is presented, involving a 26-year-old woman whose illness had a postpartum onset, recurred premenstrually for 33 consecutive months, & involved a suicide attempt by self-burning. Whereas various antidepressant, antipsychotic, & hormonal treatments were ineffective, bupropion (together with low-dose trifluoperazine) induced an immediate & complete remission that was […]

Suicide in Women: an Overview (IN: Why Women Kill Themselves, ed. by D Lester)

This article discusses attempted & completed suicide among women. The author details suicidal behaviors in professional women, the impact of marital status on suicidal behavior, the typical characteristics of suicidal individuals, & possible explanations for the different methods women & men use to attempt suicide. He offers physiological, psychological, & social explanations for female suicidal […]

Suicide and the Menstrual Cycle (IN: Why Women Kill Themselves, ed. by D Lester)

The research on the relationship between suicidal behavior & the phases of the menstrual cycle is reviewed. Results for numerous studies on attempted & completed suicide & menstruation are detailed. Possible explanations are provided, e.g. the change in levels of circulating estrogen & progesterone during the bleeding phase of the menstrual cycle may affect the […]

Deaths in Women of Reproductive Age and Relationship With Menstrual Cycle Phase. An Autopsy Study of Cases Reported to the Coroner

In this article, 171 deaths of women of reproductive age were investigated to see whether there was a relationship with any particular phase of the menstrual cycle. There were 46 deaths from natural causes, 44 accidental deaths, 50 suicides & 31 homicides in the sample. The results did not show any significant bias to any […]

Women and Depression (IN: The Psychopathology of Women by I Al-Issa)

This article outlines depression among women, including symptomatology, the menstrual cycle, menopause, oral contraceptives, estrogen replacement therapy, children leaving home, marriage & family life. A depressed woman is typically young, married, working-class, has children, no intimate relationship with her mate & no job outside the home. Cognitive & behavioral theories of depression, sex differences in […]

Medical Illness and Suicide (IN: Suicide Over the Life Cycle, ed. by S J Blumenthal and D J Kupfer)

This article reviews studies which explore the link between physical illness & suicide. Results of studies are included for AIDS, cancer, diabetes, epilepsy, head injuries, Huntington’s Chorea, hypertension, multiple sclerosis, peptic ulcers, premenstrual syndrome, pulmonary disease, arthritis, & spinal cord injuries, as well as for hospital patients & people undergoing medical procedures. Rational suicide is […]

Suicide Risk in Depression

The author of this letter emphasizes a point made in a previous article; that is, depressive symptoms in middle-aged women should not be written off as merely manifestations of menopause. Given the strong link between depression & suicide, depression in middleaged women is to be treated as it is at other times in either sex. […]

Physicochemical Correlates (IN: Suicide Theory and Clinical Aspects, ed. by L D Hankoff and B Einsidler)

In this chapter, the author examines the physicochemical correlates of suicide. He critiques the findings & proposed explanations of studies that focus on the association of suicidal behaviors with neurochemistry, pharmacology, electroencephalography, genetics, & meteorology. (CM)

Suicide in Relation to Somatic Illnesses & Complications

The question of somatic disease as a contributing factor in suicide has attracted much attention in the literature. This study investigates whether somatic illnesses are more common among suicidal than non-suicidal persons by using information from autopsies of 686 suicides at the National Forensic Laboratory, Stockholm for 1972-73. Conditions of special interest were: epilepsy, cancer, […]

Parasuicide and the Mentrual Cycle

In order to study the relationship between attempted suicide & the menstrual cycle, 74 attempt patients admitted the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh were interviewed in regard to the details of their menstrual cycles. The study failed to reject the null hypothesis that parasuicide occurs at random in relation to the menstrual cycle. (LH)