Patients with borderline personality disorder in emergency departments

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients, when in crisis, are frequent visitors of emergency departments (EDs). When these patients exhibit symptoms such as aggressiveness, impulsivity, intense anxiety, severe depression, self-harm, and suicidal attempts or gestures, diagnosis, and treatment of the BPD becomes challenging for ED doctors. This review will, therefore, outline advice to physicians and health-care […]

Cognitive flexibility and impulsivity deficits in suicidal adolescents

Although neurocognitive deficits have been documented in adolescents with suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempts (SA), it is unclear whether certain impairments differentiate these groups, potentially suggesting heightened risk for SA. Focus on specific facets of impulsivity and cognitive control may indicate distinctions between adolescents with SA vs. SI. The current study examined dimensions of […]

Emotion dysregulation and mindfulness in non-suicidal self-injury

This study examined the association between mindfulness and engagement in non-suicidal self-injury (ENSSI) and whether emotion dysregulation explains this association. A secondary objective was to explore the difference between participants who engaged in a suicide attempt and those who only engaged in non-suicidal self-injury. A sample of 201 psychiatric patients (62.7% female; age range: 18–71 […]

The UPPS model of impulsivity and suicide: A systematic literature review

Introduction Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide. Although inconsistent, impulsivity has been identified as a risk factor for suicidal thoughts and behaviors, and these inconsistent findings can largely be attributed to varying operationalizations of impulsivity. As such, the UPPS model of impulsivity provides a clear definition of impulsivity and its associated features that […]

Early life trauma, suicide ideation, and suicide attempts: The role of rumination and impulsivity

Suicide is the second leading cause of death for young adults in the United States. One of the many risk factors for suicide includes exposure to early life trauma. The present study examined whether rumination and impulsivity play a role in the relationship between early life trauma and increased risk for suicidal behavior (i.e., suicide […]

Corticolimbic DCC gene co-expression networks as predictors of impulsivity in children

Inhibitory control deficits are prevalent in multiple neuropsychiatric conditions. The communication- as well as the connectivity- between corticolimbic regions of the brain are fundamental for eliciting inhibitory control behaviors, but early markers of vulnerability to this behavioral trait are yet to be discovered. The gradual maturation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), in particular of the […]

Emotion‐related impulsivity and suicidal ideation: Towards a more specific model

Objectives: Suicidal ideation is a pervasive and painful experience that varies considerably in its phenomenology. Here, we consider how one key risk variable might inform our understanding of variation in suicidal ideation: emotion-related impulsivity, the trait-like tendency towards unconstrained speech, behaviour, and cognition in the face of intense emotions. We hypothesized that emotion-related impulsivity would be […]

Suicide risk factors and warning signs: What we’ve learned from the research

It’s important to understand that there are many potential suicide risk variables, the following are a subset of variables with strong empirical research support: Risk factors including a history of suicidal behaviors; suicidal thoughts; suicide preparation; Warning signs including severe substance abuse; impulsivity; critical relationship problems; severe health/pain problems; serious sleep problems and legal/financial crisis. See […]

Suicide attempt endophenotypes: Latent profiles of child and adolescent aggression and impulsivity differentially predict suicide attempt in females

Suicide is a leading cause of death in young adulthood. Identifying early prevention targets to reduce later suicide is a public health priority. Impulsivity and aggression in early childhood may represent actionable early prevention candidate endophenotypes for later suicidal behavior. Our objective is to to understand the association of aggression and impulsivity trajectories with mental […]

Sleep disturbances predict active suicidal ideation the next day: An ecological momentary assessment study

Background Sleep disturbances are an underestimated risk factor for suicidal ideation and behavior. Previous research provided preliminary support of a temporal relationship between sleep disturbances and suicidal ideation. The present study therefore sought to investigate the prospective association between sleep disturbances, passive and active suicidal ideation, and further psychological risk factors, such as state impulsivity […]

Quality of life, hopelessness, impulsivity, and suicide in the rural elderly in China: A moderated mediation analysis of psychological autopsy data

Background People who had died by suicide always being associated with negative emotions and even mental disorders. Understanding mechanisms underlying the association between quality of life (QOL), hopelessness, and suicide are of great significance. In this study, we aimed to test a model in which the QOL-suicide relationship was mediated by hopelessness and moderated by […]

Daily impulsivity: Associations with suicidal ideation in unipolar depressive psychiatric inpatients

Recent studies suggest that impulsivity fluctuates over time. It is unclear if state-impulsivity serves as a risk factor of suicidal ideation (SI) at a state level. A sample of 74 psychiatric inpatients with depression (M = 37.6 years, 72% female) and SI completed baseline measurements and an ecological momentary assessment over a 6-day period. Despite […]

Impulsivity and impulsivity-related endophenotypes in suicidal patients with substance use disorders: An exploratory study

Suicidal behavior (SB) is a major problem in patients with substance use disorders (SUDs). However, little is known about specific SB risk factors in this population, and pathogenetic hypotheses are difficult to disentangle. This study investigated some SB and SUD-related endophenotypes, such as impulsivity, aggression, trait anger, and risk-taking behaviors (RTBs), in forty-eight patients with […]

Childhood trauma and the severity of past suicide attempts in outpatients with cocaine use disorders

Suicide attempts have been associated with both cocaine use disorder (CocUD) and childhood trauma. We investigated how childhood trauma is an independent risk factor for serious and recurrent suicide attempts in CocUD. Method: 298 outpatients (23% women) with CocUD underwent standardized assessments of substance dependence (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual—mental disorders, fourth edition, text revised), impulsiveness, […]

Lipid profile and impulsivity in suicidal patients with major depressive disorder

Introduction Previous observational cohort studies showed an association between low serum lipid levels and suicide. This study was undertaken to examine the relationship between lipid parameters and impulsivity in suicidal patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods The current study included 100 patients with MDD distributed as 50 patients with recent suicidal attempts and 50 […]

Resilience and vulnerability factors influence the cortisol awakening response in individuals vulnerable to suicide

Suicide is a global health issue. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, as measured by cortisol levels, has been identified as one potential risk factor. Evidence is emerging to suggest that different psychological factors may be associated with increased resilience and vulnerability in this context. The current study investigated whether trait resilience, social support, socially prescribed […]

Relationship between suicide attempt history and borderline personality disorder, aggression, impulsivity, and self-mutilative behavior among male inpatients with substance use disorder

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between lifetime history of suicide attempt (HSA) and borderline personality disorder (BPD), aggression, impulsivity, and selfmutilative behavior (SMB) in a sample of male inpatients with substance use disorder (SUD). Method: The sample included 132 male inpatients with alcohol or opioid use disorder. The participants […]

Impulsiveness and suicide in male offenders: Examining the buffer roles of regulatory emotional self-efficacy and flourishing

Objectives: Although impulsiveness has been recognized as a risk factor for suicide, few studies have explored how to protect offenders with impulsiveness from the risk of suicide. This study aims to examine the relationships among impulsiveness, suicide risk, regulatory emotional self-efficacy (RESE), and flourishing, focusing on the moderating effects of RESE and flourishing in the relationship […]

The serious suicide attempts approach for understanding suicide: Review of the psychological evidence

The study of survivors of a serious suicide attempt (SSA)––an attempt that would have been fatal had it not been for the provision of rapid and effective emergency treatment––can help researchers understand the suicidal mind. Serious suicide attempters are epidemiologically very similar to those who died by suicide, and thus can serve as valid proxies for studying […]

Impulsivity, hostility and suicidality in patients diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder

Background: There are limited data on suicidal behaviour in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study aimed to evaluate several aspects affecting suicidality in OCD patients and determine whether impulsivity or hostility are associated with suicide attempts in this vulnerable group. Methods: Eighty-one patients with OCD were assessed by structured clinical interview for DSM-IV (SCID I), Yale-Brown Obsessive–Compulsive Scale […]

Direct and indirect effects of behavioral inhibition / activation systems on depression and current suicidal ideation through rumination and self-reflection

This study aimed to evaluate direct and indirect effects of the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and the behavioral activation system (BAS) on depression and current suicidal ideation through rumination and self-reflection in a sample of suicide attempters. Three hundred suicide attempters completed the Rumination/Reflection Questionnaire (RRQ), the Carver and White BIS/BAS scales, the Beck Scale […]

Prevalence and risk-markers of self-harm in autistic children and adults

Self-harm is purportedly common in autistic individuals, but under-researched, particularly in younger samples and those without intellectual disability. This study aimed to describe prevalence, profile and correlates of self-harm in autistic individuals without impairments in adaptive functioning. Parents of autistic participants (n = 83) completed questionnaires regarding the presence/topography of self-harm, demographic characteristics, autism severity, age of diagnosis, affect, activity […]

From urges to action: Negative urgency and nonsuicidal self-injury in an acute transdiagnostic sample

Urgency–rash action during strong emotion–is a robust correlate of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). This study tested whether urgency is associated with time between NSSI urges and NSSI, and sought to replicate the finding that urgency is associated with NSSI history. Participants attending a partial hospitalization program (N = 669) completed self-report measures of urgency, NSSI history and latency, […]