Differences in all-cause and cause-specific mortality due to external causes and suicide between young adult refugees, non-refugee immigrants and Swedish-born young adults: The role of education and migration-related factors

Background International migration has increased during the past years and little is known about the mortality of young adult immigrants and refugees that came to Sweden as children. This study aimed to investigate 1) the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in young accompanied and unaccompanied refugees and non-refugee immigrants compared to Swedish born individuals; […]

Suicide risk among immigrants and ethnic minorities: A literature overview

Recent studies have demonstrated that immigrants and ethnic minorities may be at higher risk of suicidal behaviour as compared to the general population. We conducted a literature search to identify studies in English from 1980 to 2017 related to suicide risk among immigrants and ethnic minorities. Six hundred and seventy-eight reports were screened, and 43 […]

When the United States says you do not belong: Suicide-related thoughts and behaviors among immigrant young adults varying in immigration legal status

Background The number of immigrants in the United States and the risk of suicide among minoritized individuals have increased. Little research has examined the impact of immigration legal status on suicide-related thoughts and behaviors (SRTB), despite theoretical and empirical work suggesting that feelings of burdensomeness and failure to belong (prominent among immigrants) are risk factors. […]

Examining variations in immigrants’ lower risk of suicide-related behaviours

Using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) and the Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC), this article provides an understanding of suicide-related behaviours, namely suicide ideation and completed suicides, among immigrants. Overall, immigrants aged 15 years and older were less likely than their Canadian-born counterparts to report having had suicidal thoughts and […]

Prevalence of suicide in immigrants/refugees: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Objective In recent years, there has been an increase in immigrant populations worldwide. This study aims to present the global prevalence of suicide between immigrants and refugees as well as to report the prevalence of suicide ideation, suicide mortality, suicide attempts, and plan of suicide. Method Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA’s) […]

Suicide rates and suicidal behaviour in displaced people: A systematic review

Background Refugees, and other forcibly displaced people, face mental distress and may be disproportionately affected by risk factors for suicide. Little is known about suicidal behaviour in these highly mobile populations because collecting timely, relevant, and reliable data is challenging. Methods and findings A systematic review was performed to identify studies of any design reporting […]

The experiences of Syrian mothers who are refugees in Canada: An exploration of emotion work and coping

The refugee crisis is one of the worst humanitarian crises of the 21st century. Refugee mothers endure elevated rates of mental health problems, such as depression, anxiety, trauma, and suicidality. However, existing interventions for mothers who are refugees are scarce and rarely provide adequate support for their specific mental health needs and challenges. Thus, this […]

Trauma made in America: The consequences of violent victimization for immigrant youth in early adulthood

Research finds that adolescent violent victimization results in numerous lasting negative life consequences. However, the long-term impacts of victimization are understudied among immigrant youth. Using a subsample of 952 immigrants from Waves I-III of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, regression models are specified to determine whether violent victimization in adolescence is […]

Substance use, affective symptoms, and suicidal ideation among Russian, Somali, and Kurdish migrants in Finland

Comorbidity of substance use with affective symptoms and suicidality has been well documented in the general population. However, population-based migrant studies about this association are scarce. We examined the association of affective symptoms and suicidal ideation with binge drinking, daily smoking, and lifetime cannabis use among Russian, Somali, and Kurdish migrants in comparison with the […]

Perceptions of mental health and utilization of mental health services among new immigrants in Canada: A qualitative study

The impact of immigration on individuals’ overall health, including mental health, is complex. New immigrants’ concepts of mental health, mental healthcare utilization, and their knowledge of existing services in Regina, Canada were explored using a hermeneutic phenomenological approach. Three focus groups were conducted with 37 participants recruited from English language classes provided by a non-governmental […]

Correlates of suicide ideation and resilience among native- and foreign-born adolescents in the United States

Purpose Nearly 20% of U.S. adolescents have considered suicide. Yet, gaps remain in understanding correlates of resilience and suicide risk, especially among populations born outside the United States who may face unique migration- and acculturation-related stressors. This study adds to the literature by exploring correlates of suicide ideation among a diverse population. Methods This study […]

Suicide rates and risk factors for suicide among Israeli immigrants from Ethiopia (1985-2017)

Background Suicide rates among Ethiopian immigrants to Israel (EI) are relatively high. This study sought to identify suicide-risk factors in this population in order to suggest some potentially preventive measures to mental health policymakers who are struggling to prevent suicide among EI. Method Nationwide age-adjusted suicide rates were calculated for EI, Former Soviet Union immigrants […]

Toward an intersectional approach in developmental science: The role of race, gender, sexual orientation, and immigrant status.

Developmental theory and research have often focused on a single social identity category, for example, race or sexual orientation, and examined the consequences of that category on life outcomes. Yet intersectional models of social disadvantage (eg, Cole, 2009; Crenshaw, 1995; King, 1988) suggest that social categories combine to shape the experiences and life outcomes of […]

The witness to witness program: Helping the Helpers in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic

The Witness to Witness Program (W2W), based on Weingarten’s witnessing model (2000, 2003, 2004), began in July 2018 and originally was established to support health care workers and attorneys (our partners) who were experiencing empathic distress working with people involved in various stages of the detention process. The W2W program evolved to offer four primary […]

The mental health of immigrants and refugees: Canadian evidence from a nationally linked database

Abstract Background: Few studies of the healthy immigrant effect (HIE) have examined the mental health outcomes of Canadian‑born individuals on a national scale compared with immigrants by admission category. This study fills this gap by examining the self‑reported mental health (SRMH) of immigrants by admission category and other immigration dimensions (e.g., source world region and […]

Rural life and suicide: Does the effect of the community context vary by country of birth? A Swedish registry-based multilevel cohort study

Contextual factors varying by residence in rural or urban areas may have different effects on the suicide of residents by nativity, but evidence on the urban-rural gap in suicide according to nativity is lacking. This study aims to evaluate the effect of cross-level interaction between nativity and rurality of residence on suicide risk, at two […]

Immigration-related arrest, parental documentation status, and depressive symptoms among early adolescent Latinos

Objectives: Experiencing an immigration-related arrest of a family member adversely impacts youth well-being, yet the role of parental documentation status for exacerbating adverse mental health outcomes following these arrests has not been investigated. Method: Using a general population sample of Latino 7th-grade students in an urban public school district in the south-central United States (N […]

Mental health and well-being of recent immigrants in Canada: Evidence from the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada

According to the 2006 Census, the proportion of foreign-born population is at the highest level it has been in 75 years. Therefore, the well-being of recent immigrants has powerful consequences for our current and future success as a nation. The process of immigration and settlement is inherently stressful, and the well-being of recent immigrants is […]

Suicide in Canada’s immigrant population

OBJECTIVES: This article compares suicide in the immigrant and Canadian-born populations. DATA SOURCES: The suicide data are from the Canadian Vital Statistics Data Base and the World Health Statistics Annual of the World Health Organization. The socio-demographic information used to determine denominators for suicide rates in Canada comes from the Census of Population. ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES: […]

Access and utilization of mental health services for immigrants and refugees: Perspectives of immigrant service providers

Immigrant and refugee populations experience life stressors due to difficult migration journeys and challenges in leaving one country and adapting to another. These life stressors result in adverse mental health outcomes when coupled with a lack of adequate support- enhancing resources. One area of support is access to and use of mental health services to […]

Psychometric testing of immigrants and natives in an acute psychiatry facility.

The diagnostic process after referral to an acute psychiatric treatment facility consists of more than the clinical investigation and laboratory tests. Psychometric tests in a broad range of languages may be such an augmentation of our diagnostic armamentarium. Whether such tests are in use, and how they are distributed among different patient categories was the aim […]

“We went out to explore, but gained nothing but illness”: Immigration expectations, reality, risk and resilience in Chinese-Canadian women with a history of suicide-related behaviour.

Suicide is a complex and tragic outcome driven by biological, psychological, social and cultural factors. Women of Chinese descent and women who have immigrated to other countries have higher rates of suicidal ideation and behaviour, and immigration-related stress may contribute. To understand the experiences of immigration and their relationship with distress and suicide-related behaviour in […]

Do first generation immigrant adolescents face higher rates of bullying, violence and suicidal behaviours than do third generation and native born?

We conducted a systematic review to examine first generation immigrant adolescentsÕ likelihood of experiencing bullying, violence, and suicidal behaviours compared to their later-generation and native born counterparts, and to identify factors that may underlie these risks. Eighteen studies met full inclusion criteria. First generation immigrant adolescents experience higher rate of bullying and peer aggression compared […]