The teacher expectations and values for suicide prevention scale: Confirmatory factor analysis and validation

Background: Teachers play a critical role in youth suicide prevention, yet few psychometrically sound instruments exist to measure teachers’ expectations and values regarding suicide prevention. Aims: This study examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Teacher Expectations and Values for Suicide Prevention (TEVSP) Scale. Method: The TEVSP was administered to 500 teachers in […]

Suicide prevention gatekeeper self-efficacy scale (GKSES): A psychometric investigation with a Japanese sample

Background: To date there is no standardized scale for the evaluation of self-efficacy of gatekeeper skills. Aim: The aim of this study was to develop the Gatekeeper Self-Efficacy Scale (GKSES), which consists of nine items assessing laypersons’ confidence in their own gatekeeper skills, and to confirm its reliability and validity. Method: Altogether 875 participants joined in gatekeeper training between 2010 […]

Factors predicting intent to intervene with a potentially suicidal peer

The current study examined how the theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs predict college students’ intent to ask about suicide and refer a potentially suicidal peer to support. Using an experimental design, 420 college students (Mage = 19.61, SD = 1.50 yrs) were randomly assigned to read one of four vignettes depicting a peer in distress that varied suicide […]

Suicide gatekeeping: An important potential role for early childhood home visitors

Parents of young children with disabilities may experience high levels of stress and psychological distress that may put them at higher risk for experiencing suicidality. Thus, early childhood home visitors (e.g., professionals who work for home-based early intervention programs) may serve as important gatekeepers for identifying and referring parents who are experiencing psychological distress, including […]

Appropriate targets for search advertising as part of online gatekeeping for suicide prevention

Background: Gatekeeper training is an effective suicide prevention strategy. However, the appropriate targets of online gatekeeping have not yet been clarified. Aim: We examined the association between the outcomes of online gatekeeping using the Internet and the characteristics of consultation service users. Method: An advertisement to encourage the use of e-mail-based psychological consultation services among viewers was placed on […]

Suicide first aid guidelines for Sri Lanka: A Delphi consensus study.

Sri Lanka has one of the highest suicide rates in the world. Gatekeeper programs aimed at specific target groups could be a promising suicide prevention strategy in the country. The aim of this study was to develop guidelines that help members of the public to provide first aid to persons in Sri Lanka who are […]

Gatekeeper training for suicide prevention: A theoretical model and review of the empirical literature.

The rate of military suicides has been increasing in recent years. In 2010 the most recent year for which we have epidemiologic data there were 301 suicide deaths among service members on active duty, equating to a rate of 18.0 suicides per 100,000 service members (Luxton et al., 2012). The increase in suicide within the […]

Does practice make perfect? A randomized control trial of behavioral rehearsal on suicide prevention gatekeeper skills.

Suicide is the third leading cause of death among 10Ð24-year-olds and the target of school-based prevention efforts. Gatekeeper training, a broadly disseminated prevention strategy, has been found to enhance participant knowledge and attitudes about intervening with distressed youth. Although the goal of training is the development of gatekeeper skills to intervene with at-risk youth, the […]

Suicide prevention gatekeeper training: Can they advance prevention in Indian country?

Journal copy held in CSP Library.

Evidence-based gatekeeper suicide prevention in a small community context.

This review examines 10 studies of suicide prevention programs conducted in small communities using these programs: (1) Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training (ASIST), (2) Connect, (3) Campus Connect, and (4) Question, Persuade, and Refer (QPR). These evidence-based programs are listed in the Best Practices Registry funded by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. […]

Stable time patterns of railway suicides in Germany: Comparative analysis of 7,187 cases across two observation periods (1995-1998; 2005-2008).

The majority of fatalities on the European Union (EU) railways are suicides, representing about 60% of all railway fatalities. The aim of this study was to compare time patterns of suicidal behaviour on railway tracks in Germany between two observation periods (1995Ð1998 and 2005Ð2008) in order to investigate their stability and value in railway suicide […]

Perspectives and appropriateness of suicide prevention gatekeeper training for MSW students.

As the largest provider group of outpatient mental health services, social workers are at the forefront of suicide prevention, yet lack formal education to recognize and respond to client suicide risk. The Question, Persuade, and Refer (QPR; Quinnett, 1995) gatekeeper training teaches basic suicide prevention skills, focusing on suicide risk factors, warning signs, and response. […]

Identifying and referring youths at risk for suicide following participation in school-based gatekeeper training.

Gatekeeper training is a core strategy of the Garrett Lee Smith Memorial Suicide Prevention Act of 2004. Using data gathered from school-based gatekeeper trainings implemented by GLS grantees, this analysis examines training and gatekeeper factors associated with (1) identification and referral patterns and (2) services at-risk youths receive. Time spent interacting with youths was positively […]

Suicide prevention through online gatekeeping using search advertising techniques: A feasibility study.

Journal held in CSP Library.

Revisiting the concept of knowledge: How much is learned by students participating in suicide prevention gatekeeper training.

Journal held in CSP Library.

Sustaining the effects of gatekeeper suicide prevention training: A qualitative study.

Also in journal held in CSP library.

Critically evaluating school mental health: pilot report.


Effectiveness of community facilitator training in improving knowledge, attitudes, and confidence in relation to depression and suicidal behavior: Results of the OSPI-Europe intervention in four European countries.


Feasibility of a web-based gatekeeper training: Implications for suicide prevention.

Two studies were conducted to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a web-based version of the Question, Persuade, and Refer (QPR) gatekeeper training program. Results of Study 1 revealed that participants in a web-based training demonstrated significant gains in knowledge of suicide prevention, self-efficacy for suicide prevention, and behavioral intentions to engage in suicide prevention, […]

Adolescent suicide prevention in a school setting: use of a gatekeeper program.

Suicide is a major public health problem. Nationally, suicide is the third leading cause of death for adolescents. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to initiate and evaluate a gatekeeper suicide-prevention program within a local school system targeting faculty and staff without a medical or psychology background who interact regularly with middle- and […]

A state’s approach to suicide prevention awareness: Gatekeeper training in Kentucky.


Randomized trial of suicide gatekeeper training for social work students.


Gatekeeper training in campus suicide prevention.

This chapter reviews factors in effective gatekeeper training as part of a comprehensive suicide prevention program. A case example is provided to illustrate the application of these factors.