Reflecting back to move forward with suicide behavior estimation for First Nations in Canada

While many countries produce suicide rates, within country estimation practices may privilege the dominant society and fail to report suicide estimates for populations historically discriminated against. In Canada, national suicide mortality studies are rarely reported for Indigenous populations. Yet, this population is known for high suicide behavior. Administrative, census and survey data are available but […]

National report of the First Nations Regional Health Survey: Phase3 Volume 1

This report is the culmination of five years of hard work by thousands of passionate, dedicated people working in a variety of capacities, including survey coordination, management, and development led by the  staff of FNIGC’s national offices, and survey deployment, coordination and data gathering led by our Regional Partners. Most importantly, we acknowledge the more […]

Systematic review and meta-analysis: First Nations, Inuit, and Metis youth mental health

Objective The ongoing effects of colonialism disproportionately place Indigenous youth at risk for mental health challenges. This meta-analysis examined lifetime and past-year prevalence estimates of mental health challenges among First Nations, Inuit, and Métis youth in Canada. Method Five electronic databases were searched from their inceptions until June 17, 2021. Studies were included if they […]

First Nations youth suicide prevention curriculum: Prevention through culture

Understanding that fostering protective factors and reducing risk factors will ultimately reduce youth suicide attempts and self-harm, the purpose of the First Nations Youth Suicide Prevention Curriculum is to promote resilience and instill hope amongst First Nations youth. The program is experiential and includes detailed guidelines for teachers as well as all required materials for […]

It’s our time education toolkit

The AFN Toolkit consists of 22 learning modules that have been designed to enhance the understanding of important First Nations topics to ensure both students and teachers are learning in and out of the classroom. Retrieved from

Indigenous writes: A guide to First Nations, Metis & Inuit issues in Canada

In Indigenous Writes, Chelsea Vowel, legal scholar, teacher, and intellectual, opens an important dialogue about these (and more) concepts and the wider social beliefs associated with the relationship between Indigenous peoples and Canada. In 31 essays, Chelsea explores the Indigenous experience from the time of contact to the present, through five categories—Terminology of Relationships; Culture and […]

Mental health interventions for First Nations, Inuit, and Metis peoples in Canada: A systematic review

Higher rates of anxiety, depression, and attempted suicide are reported among First Nations, Inuit, and Métis people compared with non-Indigenous people in Canada. This systematic review summarises the key components of mental health interventions among Indigenous Peoples in Canada. We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science between January 1,1970, and August 30, 2019. […]

Suicide among First Nations people, Metis and Inuit (2011-2016): Findings from the 2011 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC)

This article attempts to fill some of these knowledge gaps using the 2011 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC), resulting from a record integration between the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) and the Canadian Vital Statistics Database (CVSD). It presents suicide rates for the 2011 to 2016 time period among selfidentifying First Nations, Métis, […]

Health information, research and planning: An information resource for First Nations health planners

Health Information, Research and Planning defines fundamental concepts in health research and public health, and explains them in a manner that is relevant to First Nations health planners, administrators and leadership. This information is intended to get readers thinking about how health information can be used to support and enhance the development and delivery of […]

Guide to Indigenous organizations and services in Alberta

Listing of First Nation, Metis and Aboriginal organizations and services in Alberta. Also included are national and umbrella organizations with offices located elsewhere. Listings are restricted to not-for-profit organizations and services.

Factors associated with recovery in Aboriginal people in Canada who had previously been suicidal

To explore factors associated with recovery from suicidal ideation among Aboriginal peoples living off reserve in Canada. Recovery is defined as being free of serious suicidal thoughts for the past year. Data for this study came from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, a nationally representative sample of Aboriginal peoples in Canada who are living off-reserve. […]

An examination of genes, stress and suicidal behavior in two First Nations communities: The roles of the brain-derived neurotropic factor gene

Suicide claims over 800,000 lives each year worldwide. Suicide rates in indigenous populations in Canada are about double that of the national average, making it a serious public health issue. Numerous factors are involved in suicide risk, including genetic factors, as well as various psychosocial stressors, such as historical experience with the Indian Residential School […]

Adapting and enhancing PAX Good Behavior Game for First Nations communities: A mixed-methods study protocol developed with Swampy Cree Tribal Council communities in Manitoba

Introduction High rates of mental health problems, such as suicidal behaviours, among First Nations youth in Canada are a major public health concern. The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a school-based intervention that provides a nurturing environment for children and has been shown to promote positive outcomes. PAX Good Behavior Game (PAX GBG) is an adaptation […]

Suicidal thoughts and attempts in First Nations communities: Links to parental Indian residential school attendance across development.

The Indian residential school (IRS) system in Canada ran for over a century until the last school closed in 1996. Conditions in the IRSs resulted in generations of Indigenous children being exposed to chronic childhood adversity. The current investigation used data from the 2008–2010 First Nations Regional Health Survey to explore whether parental IRS attendance […]

Indigenous peoples atlas of Canada = Atlas des peuples autochtones du Canada

Indigenous perspectives, much older than the nation itself, shared through maps, artwork, history and culture. [v.1]. [Without special title] — [v.2]. First Nations — [v.3]. Inuit — [v.4]. Metis — Includes detailed Reference maps, a section on Truth and Reconciliation and a Glossary.

Insights from Cowichan: A hybrid approach to understanding suicide in one First Nations’ collective.

Explanations for suicide are theorized primarily in terms of the individual, seldom considering the interdependent orientation of Indigenous communities. Drawing on the interpersonal theory of suicide and settler colonial theory, this study addresses Indigenous suicide on two levels: the individual and the collective. Twenty‐one interviews were conducted with members of the Cowichan Tribes to understand […]

Saskatchewan First Nations suicide prevention strategy.

The Saskatchewan First Nations Suicide Prevention Strategy (SFNSPS) implements Resolution #2049, passed by the Chiefs-in-Assembly on May 18, 2017. This resolution directed the Federation of Sovereign Indigenous Nations (FSIN) to “develop and release a First Nations Suicide Prevention Strategy, with inclusion of the FSIN Youth Representatives, by May 31, 2018.” Data obtained from the Office of […]

The impact of stressors on second generation Indian residential school survivors.

From 1863 to 1996, many Aboriginal children in Canada were forced to attend Indian Residential Schools (IRSs), where many experienced neglect, abuse, and the trauma of separation from their families and culture. The present study examined the intergenerational impact of IRS exposure on depressive symptomatology in a convenience sample of 143 First Nations adults. IRS […]

Past-year suicidal thoughts among off-reserve First Nations, Metis and Inuit adults aged 18-25: Prevalence and associated characteristics.

For decades, researchers have reported high suicide rates among Aboriginal youth, which are several times higher than rates among non-Aboriginal youth. Based on the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, this article presents estimates of prevalence of suicidal thoughts among off-reserve First Nations, Métis and Inuit adults aged 18 to 25. It examines associations between past-year suicidal thoughts […]

Final report of the Aboriginal Healing Foundation Volume II: Measuring progress: Program evaluation

This volume is the consolidation of a series of annual evaluation reports, examining both process and impact, published over the period 2001 to 2003. The first report, An Interim Evaluation Report of Aboriginal Healing Foundation Program Activity (2001), focussed on the formative stages of the Aboriginal Healing Foundation’s work (hereinafter referred to as the AHF). The […]

From truth to reconciliation: Transforming the legacy of residential schools

This book is divided into four sections that are intended to take the reader along a path of reconciliation. Each chapter is written by a different author and in different styles. The first section, Truth-Telling looks at Aboriginal history in Canada with a focus on residential schools. The second section, The legacy Lives On describes […]

Opioids and substances of misuse among First Nations People in Alberta: Alberta Report, 2017.

Apparent accidental opioid toxicity deaths  Rates of apparent accidental opioid drug toxicity deaths per 100,000 were three times higher among First Nations people compared to Non-First Nations people from January 1, 2016 to March 31, 2017.  First Nations people represented 12 per cent of all apparent accidental opioid toxicity deaths in Alberta from January […]

Birth outcomes among First Nations, Inuit and Metis populations.

A systematic review and meta-analyses of birth outcomes among Indigenous women (predominantly from Canada, the United States and Australia) outlined factors associated with the higher risk: reduced access to standard prenatal care; inaccurate estimation of gestational age and subsequent complications of post-term pregnancies; pre-existing medical conditions; high rates of multiparity; young maternal age; marital status; […]