The role of firearm and alcohol availability in firearm suicide: A population-based weighted case-control study

Firearm availability has been linked to firearm self-harm, but the joint relationship with alcohol availability, while supported by theory, has not been examined. This study sought to quantify the separate and joint relations of community firearm and alcohol availability with individual-level risk of (fatal and nonfatal) firearm self-harm. We conducted a case-control study of California […]

Who discovers the firearm suicide decedent: An epidemiologic characterization of survivor‑victims

Background Suicide is the tenth leading cause of death in the United States, with over half of cases involving firearms. Despite research indicating negative effects of exposure to suicide, there is little research on who typically finds the body of the suicide decedent. Understanding who finds the body of the suicide decedent may be important […]

Missed opportunities for suicide prevention in teens with ADHD

Background: Epidemiological evidence links Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) to increased risk of suicide. The research aimed to describe awareness among primary care pediatricians (PCPs) of ADHD as a  risk factor for suicide and PCPs’ practices of suicide risk assessment (SRA) and firearms safety assessment (FSA) in teens with ADHD. Method: An online survey was […]

Engaging stakeholders to develop a suicide prevention learning module for Louisiana firearm training courses

Background: Firearm suicide is a significant public health problem in the United States of America among the general and veteran populations. Broad-based preventive strategies, including lethal means safety, have been emphasized as a key approach to suicide prevention. Prior research has identified ways to improve the reach and uptake of lethal means safety messages. However, few […]

Unraveling the complex web of associations between easy access to firearms and premature mortalities

Objective We investigated whether high school students reporting easy access to guns were more likely to die prematurely from either suicide, homicide, or an accidental death. Method Based upon the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we contrasted those reporting easy access to guns, n = 5,185, 25%, with the remaining 75% (n = 15,589) on various sociodemographic […]

Firearm retailers and suicide: Results from a survey assessing willingness to engage in prevention efforts

Objective Firearms are a highly lethal and commonly used means of suicide. Firearm retailers may be an important group of community members to train as they guide sales and have conversations about firearm-related laws and safety issues with customers. This study presents findings from the largest survey to date of independently owned firearm retailers (n = 178) […]

Evaluation of prevention efforts and risk factors among veteran suicide decedents who died by firearm

Objective Veterans die by suicide at a higher rate than the U.S. population, and veterans more frequently use a firearm as the suicide method. Consequently, firearm accessibility and storage represent important prevention considerations. This project aimed to explore the implementation of suicide prevention efforts among veterans who went on to die by suicide, with and […]

The role of reason for firearm ownership in beliefs about firearms and suicide, openness to means safety, and current firearm storage

Objective Firearm means safety strategies, such as safe storage, are effective in reducing suicide rates but are not widely implemented in the United States. This study examined the association between reason for firearm ownership, beliefs about firearm ownership and storage and suicide risk, willingness to engage in means safety, and current firearm storage practices. Method […]

Lethal means assessment and counseling in the emergency department: Differences by provider type and personal home firearms

Objective This study examined emergency department (ED) and behavioral health (BH) provider attitudes and behaviors related to lethal means screening and counseling of patients with suicide risk, specifically examining differences by provider type and whether providers had firearms in their own home. Methods Emergency department providers (physicians and mid-level practitioners) and behavioral health (BH) providers […]

The effect of state gun laws on youth suicide by firearm: 1981–2017

Background Many studies have found that state gun laws that regulate the purchase and possession of firearms can lead to a reduction in suicide rates. Yet, the literature has primarily focused on the effects of state gun laws on adult suicides, despite the fact that some gun laws are specifically tailored to restrict the purchase […]

Depression, suicide risk, and declining to answer firearm-related survey items among military personnel and veterans

Objectives To describe the characteristics of military personnel and veterans who decline to answer survey items asking about firearm availability at home, and to determine how these characteristics compare to those of military personnel and veterans who answered these items. Methods Self-report surveys were administered to 2025 military personnel and veterans visiting a primary care […]

Time-series analyses of firearm-related Google searches and U.S. suicide rates 2004–2016

Objective The U.S. suicide rate has increased 35% since 1999. The role of the Internet has not been thoroughly investigated despite Internet use more than doubling from 1999 to present. The majority of U.S. suicide deaths are by firearm; however, there is no examination of the association between trends in firearm Internet searches and overall […]

A high-need, high-impact educational session on firearms and death by suicide

Background The suicide rate among Veterans is 1.5 times greater than that for civilians, partly a result of the high use of firearms as the means for suicide. One effective strategy to reduce Veteran suicide by firearms is to provide counseling on firearm safety as a method of means reduction. However, many clinicians do not […]

Life experiences preceding high lethality suicide attempts in adolescents at a level I regional trauma center

Objective To describe life experiences associated with patterns of medically treated and documented self-directed violence among youth who attempted suicide using highly lethal means to understand precipitating factors among youth using such lethal means. Method Using data from a regional, level 1 Trauma center, we identified all youth suicide attempt survivors who received treatment from […]

Determining subgroups that exist among US firearm owners

Objective To identify and verify classes of firearm owners that exist within the United States and determine the sources that classes deemed credible to discuss firearm safety for suicide prevention. Methods The study is composed of two parts. Part 1 (N = 1018) utilizes a nationally representative sample of firearm owners. Part 2 (N = 1064) consists of firearm […]

Incarceration and subsequent risk of suicide: A statewide cohort study

Introduction Increasing suicide rates across the United States are disproportionate among populations most impacted by mass incarceration. We sought to determine if incarceration is associated with risk of suicide and firearm suicide after release from prison. Methods Using a population-based Washington cohort from Department of Corrections and vital statistics administrative records 1990–2017, individuals were compared […]

Voluntary, temporary, out-of- home firearm storage: A qualitative study of stakeholder views

Background Reducing firearm access during times of risk is a key component of suicide prevention, including the person at risk voluntarily, temporarily storing firearms outside the home. However, this approach relies on the participation of storage providers (ranges/retailers and law enforcement agencies (LEAs)). Our objective was to describe stakeholders’ views and experiences surrounding voluntary, temporary […]

Injury characteristics and circumstances of firearm trauma: Assessing suicide survivors and decedents

Introduction Despite representing fewer than 5% of suicide attempts, firearms account for over half of deaths. Yet there is little clinical information regarding firearm attempts, particularly survivors. We assessed clinical factors differentiating firearm suicide survivors from decedents, firearm attempters from other methods, and firearm attempters from similarly injured trauma patients. Methods We used clinical data […]

Receipt of clinician-delivered firearm safety counseling among U.S. Veterans: Results from a 2019 national survey

Objective Seventy percent of suicides among U.S. veterans are due to firearm injury. Because discussions about firearm access are an important component of evidence-based suicide prevention programs, we sought to quantify the proportion of U.S. veterans who have discussed firearm safety with a healthcare provider. Methods Data come from a probability-based, nationally representative online survey […]

Identifying points of prevention in firearm-related suicides: A mixed-methods study based on coronial records

Purpose Firearm-related suicide is a noteworthy and preventable public health issue that has drawn limited attention in Australian research. Firearms are highly lethal and remain in the top three methods of suicide among Australian males. This study examines suicides occurring in Tasmania, the jurisdiction with the highest rate of firearm-related suicide, with the aim of […]

Notes from the field: Increases in firearm homicide and suicide rates United States, 2020–2021

The firearm homicide rate in the United States increased nearly 35% from 2019 to 2020, coinciding with the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic (1). This increase affected all ages and most population groups, but not equally: existing disparities, including racial and ethnic disparities, widened. The firearm suicide rate was higher than the firearm homicide rate […]

Three leading suicide methods in the United States, 2017–2019: Associations with decedents’ demographic and clinical characteristics

Background and aims: The U.S. suicide data show that use of lethal methods, specifically firearms and hanging/suffocation, has been increasing among young and middle-aged adults of both sexes over the past decades. In this study, we examined demographic and clinical correlates of use of firearms, hanging/suffocation, and poisoning as suicide methods among suicide decedents age 18+. […]

Firearm type and number: Examining differences among firearm owning suicide decedents

Objective The present study sought to determine if among a sample of firearm owning suicide decedents, the type and number of firearms owned was associated with dying by suicide using a firearm compared to another method. Method Data were collected as part of a larger online study that gathered information on suicide decedents and the […]