From grief to hope: The collective voice of those bereaved or affected by suicide in the UK

This research report on the Impact of Suicide in the UK was published on 18th November 2020. It has been led by University of Manchester in collaboration with the SASP. It shows a poignant, personal and full picture of the impact of suicide on the lives of individuals, families, colleagues and professionals. It recognises progress made […]

An examination of suicide exposure and fearlessness about death on suicide risk among active duty service members, veterans, and civilians

Suicide exposure is associated with an increased risk for suicide. There is limited research on the mechanisms that increase this risk. This study aims to: (1) compare suicide exposure and associated variables in veteran, active duty, and civilian participants, (2) examine the extent to which fearlessness about death and suicide risk factors differ as a […]

Pulling together: The protective role of belongingness for depression, suicidal ideation and behavior among suicide-bereaved individuals

Background: While belongingness has frequently been investigated in the general population as an antidote to experiencing depression, suicidal thoughts, and suicidal behavior, it has rarely been evaluated as a protective factor among individuals bereaved by suicide. Aims: We examined whether perceived belongingness could moderate the differences between suicide-bereaved, suicide-exposed, and nonexposed respondents regarding depression, suicide ideation, and suicide […]

Transgenerational concordance in parent-to-child transmission of suicidal behaviour: A retrospective, nationwide, register-based cohort study of 4419642 individuals in Denmark

Background Suicidal behaviour runs in families, but the nature of transgenerational concordance needs elucidation. The aim of this study was to examine parent-to-child transmission by investigating whether presence and nature of parental suicidal behaviour was associated with suicidal behaviour in children. Methods We did a retrospective, nationwide, register-based cohort study in Demark using register data. […]

Suicide exposure in crisis workers

Background: Crisis workers provide services to individuals who are in acute distress. There is no research examining personal and occupational exposure to suicide in these workers. Aims: We aimed to examine the prevalence of personal, occupational, and colleague suicide exposure among crisis workers, the mental health outcomes associated with suicide exposures, and perceived professional preparedness for client suicide. Method: Crisis […]

Offspring’s risk for suicidal behaviour in relation to parental death by suicide: Systematic review and meta-analysis and a model for familial transmission of suicide

Background: Exposure to parental suicide has been associated with increased risk for suicide and suicide attempts, although the strength of this association is unclear as evidence remains inconsistent. Aims: To quantify this risk using meta-analysis and identify potential effect modifiers. Method: A systematic search in PubMed, PsycInfo and Embase databases to 2020 netted 3614 articles. […]

Exposure to suicide in the family and suicidal ideation in Portugal during the Covid-19 pandemic: The mediating role of unbearable psychache

Objectives: This study tested the mediation effects of two facets of psychache – bearable and unbearable – in the relationship between exposure to suicide in the family and suicidal ideation in Portugal during the Covid-19 pandemic. Methods: Two hundred and forty-four adults aged between 19 and 64 participated. Two groups were defined: one exposed to suicide in […]

Suicide exposure in crisis workers

Background: Crisis workers provide services to individuals who are in acute distress. There is no research examining personal and occupational exposure to suicide in these workers. Aims: We aimed to examine the prevalence of personal, occupational, and colleague suicide exposure among crisis workers, the mental health outcomes associated with suicide exposures, and perceived professional preparedness for client suicide. Method: Crisis […]

How relatives look back at suicide risk after their close one’s death by suicide

The aim of the current study is to analyze how relatives understand in retrospect the suicide risk of their next of kin who died by suicide. We interviewed 103 adult relatives who lost their significant others to suicide, using qualitative content analysis to explore the data. Participants expressed difficulties understanding suicide risk by identifying personal traits […]

Youth exposure to suicide attempts: Relative impact on personal trauma symptoms

Introduction: The purpose of this study is to report the prevalence of youth lifetime exposure to suicide attempts by people close to them, and its association with personal nonvictimization adversities, suicidal ideation, thoughts of self-harm, and trauma symptoms. Methods: Data were collected as part of the National Surveys of Children’s Exposure to Violence, comprising three cross-sectional studies […]

Sex differences in mental health outcomes of suicide exposure

Past research has robustly supported differences in prevalence and severity of mental health disorders between males and females in general. Less is known in regards to how suicide exposure and related factors may be associated with these mental health outcomes in men and women. This study seeks to explore similarities and differences between suicide exposure […]

Suicide exposure in transgender and gender diverse adults

Objective The purpose of this study is to examine the psychological effects of suicide exposure for Transgender and Gender Diverse (TGD) adults. Method Using data from a national online survey of 2,784 self-identified TGD adults, the current study investigated the prevalence of suicide death and suicide attempt exposure and demographic and mental health correlates. Results […]

Association of suicidal behavior with exposure to suicide and suicide attempt: A systematic review and multilevel meta-analysis

Background Exposure to suicidal behavior may be associated with increased risk of suicide, suicide attempt, and suicidal ideation and is a significant public health problem. However, evidence to date has not reliably distinguished between exposure to suicide versus suicide attempt, nor whether the risk differs across suicide-related outcomes, which have markedly different public health implications. […]

Exposure to suicide in the family: Suicidal ideation and unmet interpersonal needs in young adults who have lost a family member by suicide

The aims of the present study were to compare a sample of individuals exposed to suicide in their families with a control group, on suicidal ideation, and to test possible potentiating effects for unmet interpersonal needs. Three hundred eighty-six young Portuguese adults participated. Two groups were defined: a group exposed to suicide in the family […]

Suicide exposure in law enforcement officers

Objective To examine occupational and personal suicide exposure among Law Enforcement Officers (LEOs) and related mental health outcomes. Methods Law Enforcement Officers (N = 813) completed an online survey about their suicide exposure, whether scenes stayed with them, and current symptoms of depression, anxiety, PTSD, and suicidal ideation. Results Almost all participants (95%) had responded to at […]

What does it mean to be exposed to suicide? Suicide exposure, suicide risk, and the importance of meaning-making

Current research indicates that exposure to suicide is a risk factor for suicidality; however, we know little about the mechanisms through which exposure confers this risk. In this study, we address this gap by examining the role of meaning-making after a suicide death in moderating individual’s vulnerability to suicide. We draw on interview data with […]

How many people are exposed to suicide? Not six

It has long been stated that six people are left behind following every suicide. Despite a lack of empirical evidence, this has been extensively cited for over 30 years. Using data from a random‐digit dial survey, a more accurate number of people exposed to each suicide is calculated. A sample of 1,736 adults included 812 lifetime […]

Does the media matter to suicide?: Examining the social dynamics surrounding media reporting on suicide in a suicide-prone community

Despite the widespread acknowledgement by public health organizations that media reporting matters to suicide, this link has been much debated and the mechanisms undergirding it poorly understood. With this study, I combine a media analysis with ethnographic data collected during 2014–2016 (N = 91) to examine the social dynamicssurrounding media reporting on suicide in a community (that I call Poplar Grove, USA) with an […]

Evaluation of two web-based interventions in reducing the stigma of suicide

Suicide is more highly stigmatized than most mental health conditions; however, no interventions have aimed to modify the stigma of suicide in the general population. This study tested the efficacy of two brief web-based interventions—psychoeducation and interpersonal exposure—in reducing suicide-related stigma in a student/community sample. A sample of 266 adults completed baseline measures of suicide-related stigma, were […]

Age at exposure to parental suicide and the subsequent risk of suicide in young people

Background: We investigated the age at exposure to parental suicide and the risk of subsequent suicide completion in young people. The impact of parental and offspring sex was also examined. Method:Using a cohort study design, we linked Taiwan’s Birth Registry (1978–1997) with Taiwan’s Death Registry (1985–2009) and identified 40,249 children who had experienced maternal suicide (n = 14,431), […]

Suicide exposure in the population: Perceptions of impact and closeness

Recent studies of people exposed to suicide point to a continuum of effects moderated by a perception of closeness to the deceased. We investigated the importance of perception of impact of the death on mental health outcomes of those exposed to suicide. Female sex, younger age, and multiple exposures to suicide were associated with greater […]

Suicide exposures and bereavement among American adults: Evidence from the 2016 General Social Survey.

Highlights • Based on 1,432 2016 GSS respondents we found 51% acquainted with one or more persons dying by suicide. • 35% of these people experienced moderate to extreme emotional distress from these deaths. • On average these bereaved were 14 years past their losses. • Yet, they still showed signs of mental health problems […]

Is exposure to suicide beyond kin associated with risk for suicidal behaviorÉ A systematic review of the evidence.

Suicide bereavement and postvention literature often espouses risk for subsequent suicidal behavior among those previously exposed to a suicide death. Most often risk is discussed in relation to kin; however, many more individuals are exposed to suicide, and the impact of this exposure is important to understand in relation to targeting postvention. This review examined […]