Association between childhood cognitive skills & adult suicidal behavior: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Background It is unclear whether cognitive skill deficits during childhood carry risk for suicide attempt or mortality later in adulthood at the population level. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based studies examining the association between childhood cognitive skills and adult suicidal behavior, namely attempt and mortality. Method We systematically searched databases for […]

Suicide-specific cognitions, attentional fixation, and worst-point suicidal ideation

Objective The fluid vulnerability theory of suicide posits that each person has a baseline risk for suicide, which is comprised of both stable and dynamic factors. The current study investigated the unique involvement of suicide-specific cognitions and attentional fixation on recent suicidal ideation (SI) and SI at its worst. Method Data were analyzed from a […]

Investigating cognitive control and cognitive emotion regulation in Iranian depressed women with suicidal ideation or suicide attempts

Objective This study compared cognitive control (working memory, interference control, perseveration) and cognitive emotion regulation among Iranian women with depression who had attempted suicide, had only suicidal ideation, and healthy controls. Method Participants (N = 75) completed a clinical interview, cognitive control tasks, and the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. Results Those with suicidal ideation or previous attempts […]

Examining decentering as a moderator in the relation between non-suicidal self-injury and suicide ideation via cognitive–affective factors

Objective Given the high prevalence of self-injury but low treatment-seeking among young adults, brief, accessible interventions might help reduce risk of self-injurious thoughts and behavior in this population. This cross-sectional study examined the moderating effects of decentering—a cognitive–affective regulation strategy—in the relation between non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide ideation via cognitive–affective factors that increase risk […]

Examining multiple features of episodic future thinking and episodic memory among suicidal adults

Background Theories of suicide suggest that suicidal ideation (SI) results in part from difficulty imagining the future, which itself relies on the ability to remember the past. The present study examines multiple components of episodic future thinking and memory including event richness, which is commonly measured within the cognitive literature but has not previously been assessed […]

Cognitive flexibility and impulsivity deficits in suicidal adolescents

Although neurocognitive deficits have been documented in adolescents with suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempts (SA), it is unclear whether certain impairments differentiate these groups, potentially suggesting heightened risk for SA. Focus on specific facets of impulsivity and cognitive control may indicate distinctions between adolescents with SA vs. SI. The current study examined dimensions of […]

Cognitive effort avoidance in veterans with suicide attempt histories

Suicide attempts (SA) are increasing in the United States, especially in veterans. Discovering individual cognitive features of the subset of suicide ideators who attempt suicide is critical. Cognitive theories attribute SA to facile schema-based negative interpretations of environmental events. Over-general autobiographical memory and facile solutions in problem solving tasks in SA survivors suggest that aversion […]

Can cognition help predict suicide risk in patients with major depressive disorder? A machine learning study

Background Previous studies suggest that deficits in cognition may increase the risk of suicide. Our study aims to develop a machine learning (ML) algorithm-based suicide risk prediction model using cognition in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods Participants comprised 52 depressed suicide attempters (DSA) and 61 depressed non-suicide attempters (DNS), and 98 healthy controls […]

The pathways of aggression: Differential indirect associations between anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns and suicidality

Background: Suicide prevention efforts have focused on risk factors that help identify people with an increased risk for suicide. One risk factor related to suicide risk is anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns (ASCC), which is the “fear of going crazy.” The association between ASCC and suicidal ideation is hypothesized to result from the depression–distress amplification model, which […]

Anxiety sensitivity index-3 suicidal cognition concerns: A new measure examining negative reactions to suicidal ideation

Objective Anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns (ASCC), the fear of the consequences of mental dyscontrol, has been established as a risk factor for suicidal ideation (SI). Treatments targeted at reducing ASCC have been shown to reduce suicide risk. In this study, a new self-report measure, the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 Suicidal Cognition Concerns (ASI-3-SCC), was developed to […]

Preferences in information processing: Understanding suicidal thoughts and behaviors among active duty military service members

The present study examined Preferences in Information Processing (PIP), an emerging model of understanding suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs), in a clinical military sample for the first time. Constructs of need for affect (NFA; i.e., extent to which one engages or avoids emotional content) and need for cognition (NFC; i.e., extent of preference for and […]

Relationship between social cognition, general cognition, and risk for suicide in individuals with a psychotic disorder

Objective Cognitive alterations putatively contribute to the risk for suicide in individuals with psychosis. Yet, a comprehensive assessment of social- and general-cognitive abilities in a large sample is lacking. Methods Seven-hundred-fifteen individuals diagnosed with a psychotic disorder performed tasks of facial emotion recognition, Theory of Mind, and general cognitive functioning (sustained attention, set-shifting, IQ-tests and verbal learning) as […]

Clinical insight and cognitive functioning as mediators in the relationships between symptoms of psychosis, depression, and suicide ideation in first-episode psychosis

First-episode psychosis (FEP) is a particularly high-risk period for suicide. Literature suggests poor cognitive functioning may serve as a protective factor, while investigations of clinical insight reveal a complex relationship with suicide outcomes. This study examined the mediating role of cognition and clinical insight in the relationships between positive and negative symptoms, depression, and subsequent […]

Cognitive networks identify dimensions of distress in suicide notes: Anxiety, emotional profiles, and the “words not said”

Suicide remains a serious public-health concern that is difficult to accurately predict in real-world settings. To identify potential predictors of suicide, we examined the emotional content of suicide notes using methods from cognitive network science. Specifically, we compared the co-occurrence networks of suicide notes with those constructed out of emotion words written by individuals scoring […]

The role of perceived and objective social connectedness on risk for suicidal thoughts and behavior in late-life and their moderating effect on cognitive deficits

Objective Impaired cognition increases suicide risk while social connectedness protects against suicide risk in late life. We examined the independent and interactive effects of social connectedness and cognition on suicide risk in late life. Methods Participants included 570 individuals aged 50+ from a late-life suicide study. The Interpersonal Support Evaluation List and Social Network Index […]

Inflammation biomarkers in suicide attempts and their relation to abuse, global functioning and cognition.

ABSTRACT Objectives: To explore the link between cytokines and suicide attempts and their relationship with the psychological aspects of this complex multifactorial phenomenon. Methods: 96 participants, including 20 patients with a recent suicide attempt and diagnosis of Major Depression Disorder (MDD), 33 MDD patients with a lifetime history of suicide attempt, 23 non-attempter MDD patients, […]

Neurocognitive functioning adolescents at risk for suicidal behaviors

Today, little is still known about the neurocognitive functioning of the individual at risk for suicide in a relevant developmental stage like adolescence. Thus, the main goal of the present work was to analyze the neurocognitive performance of adolescents at high risk for suicide. A total of 1509 adolescents from a stratified random cluster sampling […]

Impulsivity and cognitive flexibility as neuropsychological markers for suicidality: A multi-modal investigation among military veterans with alcohol use disorder and PTSD

To examine relations between self-report and behavioral measures of impulsivity and cognitive flexibility with suicidal ideation and self-harm and suicide attempt history. Methods: Eighty-seven military veterans who met DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were evaluated for current suicidal ideation and self-harm, suicide attempt history, impulsivity, and cognitive […]

Decision-making and cognitive control in adolescent suicidal behaviors: A qualitative systematic review of the literature

Suicide and suicidal behaviors represent a leading cause of morbidity and mortality during adolescence. While several lines of evidence suggest that suicidal behaviors are associated with risky decisions and deficient cognitive control in laboratory tasks in adults, comparatively less is known about adolescents. Here, we systematically reviewed the literature on the association between these neurocognitive […]

Theory of mind in non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) adolescents

The aim of the present study is to investigate different facets of the theory of mind (ToM), i.e. first vs. third-person, first vs. second-order ToM, egocentric vs. allocentric perspective, in a clinical sample of 20 non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) adolescent inpatients and 20 healthy controls. Methods: We investigated whether performance in ToM tasks was related to both […]

Negative emotional action termination (NEAT): Support for a cognitive mechanism underlying negative urgency in nonsuicidal self-injury

Negative urgency, the self-reported tendency to act impulsively when distressed, increases risk for nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). NSSI is also associated with impaired negative emotional response inhibition (NERI), specifically negative emotional action termination (NEAT), a cognitive process theoretically related to negative urgency. We previously found that adults with NSSI history had difficulty inhibiting behavioral responses to affective images depicting negative content (but […]

Cognitive correlates of serious suicidal ideation in a community sample of adolescents

BACKGROUND: Studies indicate that a dysfunctional attributional style, problem-solving deficits and hopelessness place youths at risk of developing suicidal thoughts and engaging in suicidal behaviour. However, in the realm of suicidality in adolescent, no study has examined the linkages between these three cognitive variables and suicidal ideation in non-clinical samples while taking into account the […]

Deficit of cognitive inhibition in depressed elderly: A neurocognitive marker of suicidal risk

Background Cognitive deficits, in relation to ventral and dorsal prefrontal cortex dysfunctions, have been associated with a higher risk of suicidal acts in young adult patients. Although a public health concern, much less is known about the neurocognitive basis of suicidal behavior in elderly. Here, we aimed at assessing alterations in cognitive inhibition, a suspected […]