Adverse childhood experiences and clustering of high-risk behaviors among high school students: A cross-sectional study

Objectives: This study assessed the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and clustering of high-risk behaviors in a sample of high school students. Study design: This was a cross-sectional study. Methods: A sample of students who attended randomly selected classes in 99 high schools completed the 2019 Nevada Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N = 4959). The survey included […]

Space-time self-harm and suicide clusters in two cities in Taiwan

Aims: Suicidal acts may cluster in time and space and lead to community concerns about further imitative suicidal episodes. Although suicide clusters have been researched in previous studies, less is known about the clustering of non-fatal suicidal behaviour (self-harm). Furthermore, most previous studies used crude temporal and spatial information, e.g., numbers aggregated by month and residence […]

Spatial–temporal analysis of suicide clusters for suicide prevention in Hong Kong: A territory-wide study using 2014– 2018 Hong Kong Coroner’s Court reports

Background This study aimed to (i) identify high-risk suicide-methods clusters, based on location of residence and suicide incidence; and (ii) compare the characteristics of cases and spatial units inside and outside clusters. Methods Suicide data of 4672 cases was obtained from the Coroner’s Court reports in Hong Kong (2014–2018). Monthly aggregated suicide numbers based on […]

Applying the Anderson-Darling test to suicide clusters: Evidence of contagion at U. S. universities?

Background: Suicide clusters at Cornell University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) prompted popular and expert speculation of suicide contagion. However, some clustering is to be expected in any random process. Aim: This work tested whether suicide clusters at these two universities differed significantly from those expected under a homogeneous Poisson process, in which suicides occur […]

An adolescent suicide cluster and the possible role of electronic communication technology

Background: Since the development of Centers for Disease Control’s (CDC) guidelines for the management of suicide clusters, the use of electronic communication technologies has increased dramatically. Aims: To describe an adolescent suicide cluster that drew our attention to the possible role of online social networking and SMS text messaging as sources of contagion after a suicide and obstacles […]

Suicide clusters in young people: Evidence for the effectiveness of postvention strategies

Background: Suicide clusters have commonly been documented in adolescents and young people. Aims: The current review conducts a literature search in order to identify and evaluate postvention strategies that have been employed in response to suicide clusters in young people. Methods: Online databases, gray literature, and Google were searched for relevant articles relating to postvention interventions following a suicide cluster […]

Clustering of suicides in children and adolescents

Suicide is one of the major causes of death in young people, in whom suicide can occur in clusters. In this Review, we have investigated definitions and epidemiology of such clusters, the factors associated with them, mechanisms by which they occur, and means of intervening and preventing them. Clustering of suicidal behaviour is more common […]

Responding to suicide clusters in the community: What do existing suicide cluster response frameworks recommend and how are they implemented?

Suicide clusters involve an excessive number of suicides, suicide attempts, or both, that occur close in space or time or involve social links between cluster members. Although suicide clusters are rare, evidence documenting the implementation of suicide cluster response activities in communities is required yet remains limited. In this study, we identified the core components […]

Understanding suicide clusters through exploring self-harm semi-structured interviews with individuals presenting with near-fatal self-harm during a suicide cluster

There was a highly publicised cluster of at least ten suicides in South Wales, United Kingdom, in 2007-2008. We carried out a qualitative descriptive study using cross-case thematic analysis to investigate the experiences and narratives of eight individuals who lived in the area where the cluster occurred and who survived an episode of near-fatal self-harm […]

Responsible journalism, imitative suicide, and transgender populations: A systematic review of UK newspapers

Purpose: The risk of suicide is high in the transgender population. Imitative suicide occurs when excess suicidal behavior is observed following news media coverage of suicide. The purpose of this study is to evaluate how often UK newspapers adhere to suicide reporting guidelines designed to minimize imitative suicide when they report the suicides of transgender […]

Suicide clusters among top 10 high-risk occupations: A study from 2001 to 2016 in Australia

A number of studies have demonstrated elevated risk of suicide in certain occupational groups. We seek to understand a possible new risk factor: suicide contagion, as demonstrated through a suicide cluster analysis. National-level coronial data and census population data were used for the study. We calculated suicide rates to identify “risky” occupations. SaTScan v9.4.1 was […]

Understanding the characteristics and mechanisms underlying suicide clusters in Australian youth: A comparison of cluster detection methods

Aims. There is currently no gold-standard definition or method for identifying suicide clusters, resulting in considerable heterogeneity in the types of suicide clusters that are detected. This study sought to identify the characteristics, mechanisms and parameters of suicide clusters using three cluster detection methods. Specifically, the study aimed to: (1) determine the overlap in suicide […]

A community-based response to a suicide cluster: A Hong Kong experience

Background: A 45-month community-based suicide prevention program was launched in response to the emergence of a suicide cluster in 2010 in Hong Kong. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the program, document the implementation and outcomes of the project, and identify factors that contribute to the outcomes. Method: The program was delivered following the five key components […]

Developing a community plan for preventing and responding to suicide clusters

This resource has been developed to assist Australian communities to manage or contain an actual or potential suicide cluster. The community plan might focus on a suburb, a particular facility (e.g., a school, hospital or prison), a rural or remote area, or an Indigenous community. It could be developed by a government department, mental health […]

Suicide clusters in Australian youth: A comparison of cluster detection methods

Abstract Aims: Suicide clusters are significantly more common in young people. Yet, there is currently no gold-standard method for detecting suicide clusters and there is some evidence that the different methods for detecting clusters give inconsistent results. Our aim was to conduct a comparative analysis of suicide clusters in young people using 1) The scan […]

Suicide typologies in the United States Air Force: A hierarchical cluster analysis

Objective This study describes characteristics of United States Air Force (USAF) suicide decedents and determines subgroups. Method Retrospective review of demographic, psychiatric, event‐related, and psychosocial variables for USAF suicide decedents in the Suicide Event Surveillance System database was conducted between February 1999 and July 2009 (N = 376). Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to determine initial clusters […]

Spatiotemporal clustering of suicides in the US from 1999 to 2016: A spatial epidemiological approach

Purpose This study aims to describe and characterize the spatial and temporal clustering patterns of suicide in the ten states with the greatest suicide burden in the United States from 1999 to 2016. Methods All suicide deaths from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2016 in the United States were identified using data from the Wide-ranging […]

Clusters of suicidal events among young people: Do clusters from one time period predict later clusters?

We sought to compare clusters of suicidal events between two different time periods and examine the extent to which earlier clusters predict later clusters. We included data on suicides and suicide attempts from New South Wales between July 2001 and June 2012 and Western Australia between January 2000 and December 2011. Suicide attempts included admissions […]

Does the media matter to suicide?: Examining the social dynamics surrounding media reporting on suicide in a suicide-prone community

Despite the widespread acknowledgement by public health organizations that media reporting matters to suicide, this link has been much debated and the mechanisms undergirding it poorly understood. With this study, I combine a media analysis with ethnographic data collected during 2014–2016 (N = 91) to examine the social dynamicssurrounding media reporting on suicide in a community (that I call Poplar Grove, USA) with an […]

Suicide clusters within American Indian and Alaska Native communities: A review of the literature and recommendations

The purpose of this report is to examine what is known about suicide clusters within American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations and to use that information to develop recommendations for stakeholders working to prevent and contain suicide clusters within AI/AN communities. This paper provides the results of the review based on: (1) the research on […]

The aftermath of a suicide cluster in the age of online social networking: A qualitative analysis of adolescent grief reactions.

Although suicide clusters have been identified in many populations, research exploring the role of online communication in the aftermath of a suicide cluster is extremely limited. This study used the Consensual Qualitative Research method to analyze interviews with ten high school students 1 year after a suicide cluster in a small suburban school district. Interviewee’s responses […]

Posttraumatic stress disorder symptom clusters and acquired capability for suicide: A reexamination using DSM-5 criteria.

This study used the interpersonal–psychological theory of suicide to explore the relationships among DSM‐5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters derived from the six‐factor anhedonia model and facets of acquired capability for suicide (ACS). In a sample of 373 trauma‐exposed undergraduates, most PTSD symptom clusters were negatively associated with facets of ACS in bivariate correlations, but the […]

Newspaper coverage of suicide and initiation of suicide clusters in teenagers in the USA, 1988-96: A retrospective, population-based, case-control study.

Background Public health and clinical efforts to prevent suicide clusters are seriously hampered by the unanswered question of why such outbreaks occur. We aimed to establish whether an environmental factor—newspaper reports of suicide—has a role in the emergence of suicide clusters. Methods In this retrospective, population-based, case-control study, we identified suicide clusters in young people […]