Gene expression analysis in postmortem brains from individuals who died by suicide: A systematic review

Around the world, more the 700,000 individuals die by suicide every year. It is necessary to understand the mechanisms associated with suicidal behavior. Recently, an increase in gene expression studies has been in development. Through a systematic review, we aimed to find a candidate gene in gene expression studies on postmortem brains of suicide completers. […]

Brain imaging: Healthy networks for suicide prevention

In an editorial in this journal some years ago, Mann (2005) suggested that brain imaging is a promising direction for measuring the predisposition toward suicidal behavior. Since then, there has been a  proliferation of imaging studies in both psychiatry and neuroscience, reflecting the increasing popularity of brain-disease models of psychiatric disorders. The hope is that […]

Identification of novel targets and pathways to distinguish suicide dependent or independent on depression diagnosis

In recent years, postmortem brain studies have revealed that some molecular, cellular, and circuit changes associated with suicide, have an independent or additive effect on depression. The aim of the present study is to identify potential phenotypic, tissue, and sex-specific novel targets and pathways to distinguish depression or suicide from major depressive disorder (MDD) comorbid […]

Machine learning based identification of structural brain alterations underlying suicide risk in adolescents

Suicide is the third leading cause of death for individuals between 15 and 19 years of age. The high suicide mortality rate and limited prior success in identifying neuroimaging biomarkers indicate that it is crucial to improve the accuracy of clinical neural signatures underlying suicide risk. The current study implements machine-learning (ML) algorithms to examine structural […]

Suicide and neurotrophin factors: A systematic review of the correlation between BDNF and GDNF and self-killing

According to WHO data, suicide is a public health priority. In particular, suicide is the fourth-leading cause of death in young people. Many risk factors of suicide are described, including individual-, relationship-, community-, and societal-linked ones. The leading factor is the diagnosis of mental illness. Nevertheless, not all people who attempt suicide are psychiatric patients; […]

Suicide ideation and neurocognition among 9- and 10-year old children in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study

During the past decade, the pediatric suicide rate has nearly tripled. Yet, little is known about suicide behavior (SB) in children. Identification of risk factors associated with SB during childhood may be critical to preventing future attempts. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between neurocognitive performance and suicide ideation (SI) in […]

Brain signatures in children who contemplate suicide: Learning from the large-scale ABCD study

Background: Suicide is the second-leading cause of death in youth. Understanding the neural correlates of suicide ideation (SI) in children is crucial to ongoing efforts to understand and prevent youth suicide. This study characterized key neural networks during rest and emotion task conditions in an epidemiologically informed sample of children who report current, past, or […]

Local shape volume alterations in subcortical structures of suicide attempters with major depressive disorder

Suicide is among the most important global health concerns; accordingly, an increasing number of studies have shown the risks for suicide attempt(s) in terms of brain morphometric features and their clinical correlates. However, brain studies addressing suicidal vulnerability have been more focused on demonstrating impairments in cortical structures than in the subcortical structures. Using local […]

Chemokine alterations in the postmortem brains of suicide completers

Suicide is a major health problem in the modern world. However, its physiological mechanisms have not been well elucidated yet. Immunological disturbances have been reported in psychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BP), and schizophrenia. Some studies have also suggested an association between immunological alterations especially neuroinflammation, and suicide. Chemokines play […]

Imaging suicidal thoughts and behaviors: A comprehensive review of 2 decades of neuroimaging studies.

Identifying brain alterations that contribute to suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs) are important to develop more targeted and effective strategies to prevent suicide. In the last decade, and especially in the last 5 years, there has been exponential growth in the number of neuroimaging studies reporting structural and functional brain circuitry correlates of STBs. Within […]

Connectomics-based functional network alterations in both depressed patients with suicidal behavior and healthy relatives of suicide victims

Understanding the neural mechanisms of suicidal behavior is crucial. While regional brain alterations have previously been reported, knowledge about brain functional connectomics is currently limited. Here, we investigated differences in global topologic network properties and local network-based functional organization in both suicide attempters and suicide relatives. Two independent samples of depressed suicide attempters (N = 42), depressed […]

Neurobiological risk factors for suicide: Insights from brain imaging.

This article reviews neuroimaging studies on neural circuitry associated with suicide-related thoughts and behaviors to identify areas of convergence in findings. Gaps in the literature for which additional research is needed are identified. Evidence acquisition A PubMed search was conducted and articles published before March 2014 were reviewed that compared individuals who made suicide attempts […]

Association between abnormal default mode network activity and suicidality in depressed adolescents.

Background Suicide is the second leading cause of death among 15- to 29-year-olds in China, and 60 % of suicidal patients have a history of depression. Previous brain imaging studies have shown that depression and suicide may be associated with abnormal activity in default mode network (DMN) regions. However, no study has specifically investigated the […]

Prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex, and hippocampus volume are affected in suicidal psychiatric patients.

Suicide is a leading cause of death in America, with over 40,000 reported suicides per year. Mental illness is a major risk factor for suicidality. This study attempts to validate findings of volumetric differences from studies on suicidality. Psychiatric inpatients classified as having mildly severe or severe depression were separated into two groups: suicide attempted […]

Neurobiology of elderly suicide.

Journal copy held in CSP Library.

Association between BDNF levels and suicidal behaviour: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Suicidal behaviour is a complex phenomenon with a multitude of risk factors. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein crucial to nervous system function, may be involved in suicide risk. The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate and summarize the literature examining the relationship between BDNF levels and suicidal behaviour. Six-hundred thirty-one articles were […]

The science of neglect: The persistent absence of responsive care disrupts the developing brain: Working paper 12.

This Working Paper from the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child explains why significant deprivation is so harmful in the earliest years of life and why effective interventions are likely to pay significant dividends in better long-term outcomes in learning, health, and parenting of the next generation.

Building the brain’s “air traffic control” system: How early experiences shape the development of executive function: Working paper 11.

Being able to focus, hold, and work with information in mind, filter distractions, and switch gears is like having an air traffic control system at a busy airport to manage the arrivals and departures of dozens of planes on multiple runways. In the brain, this air traffic control mechanism is called executive function, a group […]

Depressed suicide attempters have smaller hippocampus than depressed patients without suicide attempts.

Hippocampal volumes were assessed with automatic segmentation in 63 depressed patients with or without suicide attempts. Suicide attempters had lower total hippocampus volumes than non-attempters, especially for acute suicide attempts. These differences were independent from socio-demographics and major depressive disorder characteristics. A total hippocampal volume threshold of 5.00 cm3 had a 98.2% negative predictive value […]