Serotonin and Cortisol as Suicidogenic Factors in Patients With PTSD

This study examined the statistical relation between platelet serotonin concentration & serum cortisol concentration in a group of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, with & without attempted suicide, treated in hospital in Zagreb. Results showed significantly lower platelet serotonin concentration in the patients, with & without suicidal behaviour, as compared to healthy controls. There were […]

Lower 3H-Paroxetine Binding in Cerebral Cortex of Suicide Victims is Partly due to Fewer High Affinity, non-Transporter Sites

Binding kinetics were assayed in prefrontrol & temporal cortex in matched pairs of suicide victims & controls using the selective ligand 3H-paroxetine & employing 1muM sertraline to define specific binding to the transporter & 10muM sertraline which also displaces binding to the high affinity, nontransporter site. The total number of 3H-paroxetine transporter & nontransporter binding […]

Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor Binding Kinetics in the Cortex of Suicide Victims are Normal

The authors report the first study of serotonin 5-HT3 receptors in the brain of suicide victims. There were no differences in the number (Bmax) or affinity (Kd) of 5-HT3 receptors in the temporal cortex of suicide victims compared to matched controls. There was a negative correlation between brain serotonin levels & receptor number in both […]

High Affinity 3Himipramine and 3Hparoxetine Binding Sites in Suicide Brains

Specific binding of 3Himipramine & 3Hparoxetine was simultaneously examined in human brains from 11 controls & 11 depressed suicide victims. A single saturable high affinity site was obtained for both radioligands. Age was not related to significant changes in either binding parameter, indicating stability in the brain serotonergic system with increasing age. A significant decrease […]

Peripheral Serotonergic Markers in Acutely Suicidal Patients. 1. Comparison of Serotonergic Platelet Measures Between Suicidal Individuals, Nonsuicidal Patients With Major Depression and Healthy Subjects

5 peripheral serotonergic markers were assessed simultaneously. Of 60 acutely suicidal inpatients, 45 were suicide attempters. 28 nonsuicidal patients with major depression & 123 healthy volunteers served as control groups. Mean platelet 5HT concentration was significantly lower in suicidal inpatients when compared to nonsuicidal depressed patients, but did not differ from the figure in healthy […]

Relationships Between Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism, Platelet Serotonin Transporter Binding and Clinical Phenotype in Suicidal and Non-Suicidal Adolescent Inpatients

Relationships between the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism, platelet serotonin transporter binding, & clinical phenotype were examined in 32 suicidal & 28 nonsuicidal Ashkenazi Israeli adolescent psychiatric inpatients. The serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism was not associated with transporter binding or with suicidality or other clinical phenotypes. However, in the suicidal group, a significant positive correlation between […]

Suicide Attempt and n-3 Fatty Acid Levels in red Blood Cells: a Case Control Study in China

The authors recruited 100 individuals who had attempted suicide & 100 control patients injured by accidents. Cases & controls were matched for age, gender, & smoking status. Blood was sampled immediately after admission to hospital. Washed red blood cells were obtained & the fatty acid composition of the total red blood cells phospholipid fraction was […]

Association Between a Functional Polymorphism in the Renin-Angiotensin System and Completed Suicide

The authors hypothesized that the dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin system was involved in suicide, & examined the association between completed suicide & 4 functional polymorphisms in renin-angiotensin-related genes. The I allele of the angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D polymorphism was found to be more frequent in suicide victims than controls. The I allele was also found to […]

Genetics of Suicide in Depression

Evidence is mounting that genetic factors may be included in the many determinants of suicide. Clinical studies of psychiatric patients have suggested that risk of suicidal behaviour is increased by the presence of family history of suicidality, a claim that is also supported by findings of twin & adoption studies. In addition, molecular genetic studies […]

The Role of Endogenous Opioids in the Pathophysiology of Self-Injurious and Suicidal Behavior

While suicidal behaviour & non-suicidal self-injury are distinct behaviours, non-suicidal self-injury is a significant risk factor for suicide attempts & suicide. The high co-occurrence of these two behaviours suggests that they may share a common biology. Available data indicate that endogenous opioids may be involved in the pathophysiology of suicidal behaviour. Future studies of the […]

Brainstem Raphe Lesion in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder and in Patients With Suicidal Ideation Recorded on Transcranial Sonography

This study assessed the usefulness of transcranial sonography recording in a group of 17 patients with major depressive disorder & 14 patients with major depressive disorder who also reported suicide ideation. 40 healthy controls were included in the study. Reduced raphe echogenicity was found in 8 of 17 patients with major depressive disorder but only […]

Prospective Study of Major Depressive Disorder With White Matter Hyperintensity: Comparison of Patients With and Without Lacunar Infarction

Clinical characteristics, outcome, & risk factors for cerebrovascular disease were studied in Japanese patients with major depressive disorder & white matter hyperintensity. 123 patients were placed into 1 of 3 groups after undergoing magnetic resonance imaging: patients with no abnormal findings; patients with white matter hyperintensity & no lacunar infarction; & patients with lacunar infarction. […]

Platelet Imipramine Binding in Intensive Care Unit Suicidal Patients

3H-imipramine binding in relation to serotonergic function was studied in patients hospitalized following a suicide attempt. Comparison with a control group showed a highly significant difference in Bmax values. The results suggest, at least a posteriori, a biological alteration as the basis of suicidal behaviour. Although it is impossible to attribute a suicide attempt to […]

Suicide Attempters: Biological Stressmarkers and Adverse Life Events

This study investigated stressful life events & biological stress markers among former psychiatric inpatients who were followed up 12 years after an index suicide attempt. At the time of the index attempt, & before treatment, cerebrospinal fluid samples were taken & urine was collected. Data concerning stressful life events were collected retrospectively from all participants […]

Tyrosine Hydroxylase Immunoreactivity in the Locus Coeruleus is Reduced in Depressed Non-Suicidal Patients but Normal in Depressed Suicide Patients

This postmortem study determined numbers of noradrenergic neurons by immunostaining the synthesizing enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase in the locus coeruleus of 12 non-elderly depressed patients with a mood disorder as compared to 12 matched normal controls. 6 patients died by suicide, 6 from natural causes. Non-suicidal patients had fewer neurons immunoreactive for tyrosine hydroxylase than suicide […]

Serotonergic Measures in Suicide Brain: 5-HT1A Binding Sites in Frontal Cortex of Suicide Victims

The density of 5-HT1A binding using 3H-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propyl-amino) tetralin as binding ligand was studied in human frontal cortex of suicide victims & normal controls who died due to medical disease or accidents. There was no difference in the maximum number of binding site (Bmax) or Kd (an inverse measure of affinity) of 5-HT1A receptor binding sites […]

Unchanged Density of Caudate Nucleus Dopamine Uptake Sites in Depressed Suicide Victims

In this post-mortem study, the binding of the ligand 3HWIN 35,428 to dopamine uptake sites in the caudate nucleus was investigated in 13 depressed suicide victims & 19 controls. The were no differences in Bmax or Kd between the suicide group & controls. Subdividing the suicide group into subgroups regarding the presence of major depression, […]

Postmortem mu-opioid Receptor Binding in Suicide Victims and Controls

This study compared opioid receptor binding kinetics in postmortem brains of 9 young suicide victims & 10 matched controls in 2 brain areas, the prefrontal cortex & the pre-post central gyri. Binding indices did not differ between suicide victims & controls in either brain area & did not correlate with age. Prefrontal cortex Bmax was […]

Similar Effects of Glycine, Zinc and an Oxidizing Agent on 3Hdizocilpine Binding to the N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor in Neocortical Tissue From Suicide Victims and Controls

This study used 3Hdizocilpine (MK-801) binding to the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor to examine glycine, redox, & zinc modulatory sites in membranes derived from the frontal & parietal cortex of 8 control subjects & 6 suicide victims. 3Hdizocilpine binding in the presence of glutamate & glutamate plus glycine was similar in both groups. The sulphydryl redox […]

Reduced Prolactin and Cortisol Responses to d-Fenfluramine in Depressed Compared to Healthy Matched Control Subjects

d-Fenfluramine was used as a neuroendocrine challenge in 19 subjects with major depression & 19 healthy controls. 5-HT-mediated prolactin & cortisol responses were both significantly attenuated in the depressed group. Patients with a history of suicide attempt had lower cortisol responses than those without. Peak cortisol responses were inversely related to baseline cortisol levels. There […]

Aberrant Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) 5 Signaling in Hippocampus of Suicide Subjects

This study investigated whether suicide brain is associated with alterations in components of the Extracellular Signal-Related Kinase (ERK) 5 signaling cascade. 28 suicide victims & 21 nonpsychiatric control subjects were examined. Findings suggested reduced activation &/or expression of ERK5 & MEK5, & reduced MDF2C-DNA-binding activity demonstrate abnormalities in ERK5 signaling in the hippocampus of suicide […]

Psychobiological Aspects of Suicidal Behavior (IN: Psychopathology: an Interactional Perspective, edited by D Magnusson & A Ohman

Studies in the past decade suggest that biological factors may contribute to the development of suicidal behaviour. The most well-substantiated findings are those that link suicide to a disturbed turnover of serotonin in the brain. These findings are reviewed in this chapter, & some of their implications are discussed. (52 refs.)

Impulsivity Related to Brain Serotonin Transporter Binding Capacity in Suicide Attempters

In this study, whole brain binding potential of the serotonin transporter & dopamine transporter was measured by a single photon emission computerised tomography in 12 patients after a serious suicide attempt & in 12 matched healthy controls. No significant serotonin transporter or dopamine transporter differences between patients & controls were found. In patients, but not […]