Suicidal ideation in elite schools: A test of the Interpersonal Theory and the Escape Theory of suicide

Objective The present study compared the ability of two contemporary theories of suicidal behavior—the interpersonal and escape theories of suicide—to predict suicidal ideation. The interpersonal theory proposes that the interaction of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness predicts suicidal ideation. The escape theory proposes that feelings of failure predict suicidal ideation and that escape motivation mediates […]

The link between discrimination and worst point suicidal ideation among sexual and gender minority adults

Objective Sexual and gender minority (SGM) adults often report a disproportionately high rate of suicidal ideation compared to their heterosexual and cisgender counterparts. The current study aimed to understand the relationship between discrimination for one’s sexual orientation or gender identity and suicidal ideation. We hypothesized that discrimination would be associated with suicidal ideation at one’s […]

Social support mediates the association between disclosure of suicide attempt and depression, perceived burdensomeness, and thwarted belongingness

Objective Prior research has found disclosure of concealable stigmatized statuses, including suicide attempt survivorship, to be associated with positive mental health outcomes. This study sought to test the mediating effect of self-reported social support on the association between disclosure of suicide attempt and suicide risk factors in a sample of undergraduate college students. Method Data […]

Investigation of the interpersonal theory of suicide in the context of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptomatology and suicide ideation

Objective The current study examines components of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide as mediators of the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and suicide ideation in college students with elevated depressive symptoms. Specifically, indirect effects of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness were simultaneously evaluated on the association between self-reported ADHD symptoms and suicide ideation, controlling […]

Thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness explain the associations of COVID-19 social and economic consequences to suicide risk

Objective The social and economic consequences of COVID-19 and related public health interventions aimed at slowing the spread of the virus have been proposed to increase suicide risk. However, no research has examined these relations. This study examined the relations of two COVID-19 consequences (i.e., stay-at-home orders and job loss) to suicide risk through thwarted […]

Substance use, current criminal justice involvement, and lifetime suicidal thoughts and behaviors history: The moderating role of thwarted belonging

Objective Criminal justice involvement, substance use, and suicide pose significant public health concerns; however, the unique and synergistic effects of these experiences among high-risk individuals remain understudied. We hypothesized positive main effects for alcohol-related severity, drug-related severity, current criminal justice involvement, and thwarted belonging (TB) on suicide ideation history (SIH) and suicide attempt history (SAH) […]

Social-cognitive risk for suicide and new relationship formation: False perception, self-fulfilling prophecy, or both?

Objective This study examined the impact of social-cognitive constructs associated with increased suicide risk (i.e., perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness) on relationship formation during real-time interactions of older adolescents with strangers in a dyadic context. Method Two hundred and seventy-four older adolescents (61.9% female, M age = 18.96 years) were paired with same-gender strangers and completed a laboratory-based interaction task. […]

Thwarted belongingness predicts greater neural reactivity to a novel social exclusion image set: Evidence from the late positive potential

Introduction Thwarted belongingness (TB) is among the most well-researched risk factors for suicidal ideation (SI). Yet, there is little research examining neural mechanisms underlying this construct. The present study used a novel social exclusion image set in concert with the late positive potential (LPP) to test the role of neural reactivity social exclusion in TB […]

Self-injury in young bisexual people: A microlongitudinal investigation (SIBL) of thwarted belongingness and self-esteem on non-suicidal self-injury

Background Bisexual people are at an elevated risk for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Psychological factors including self-esteem and thwarted belongingness may help explain this risk. The aim of the current study was to investigate associations between self-esteem, thwarted belongingness and NSSI urges and behavior in young bisexual people. Methods Participants aged 16–25 from 25 countries took […]

An experimental investigation of the influence of loneliness on changes in belongingness and desire to escape

Objective Loneliness is a well-established risk factor for suicide in young adults, but the mechanisms involved are still unclear. Drawing on the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide, the Evolutionary Model of Loneliness, and Prospect Theory, we examined if high and low levels of loneliness are associated with different patterns of response to losses or gains of […]

Development and initial validation of a parent report measure of youth belongingness and burdensomeness

Objective The Interpersonal Theory of Suicide (ITS) implicates thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness as casually related to suicide desire. The self-report Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ) is the most commonly used measure to assess belongingness and burdensomeness, including in youth. No parent-report version of the INQ exists. The current study adapted the ten-item version of the […]

Longitudinal mediation by perceived burden of the pathway from thwarted belonging to suicidal ideation

Introduction Whereas the interpersonal theory of suicide entails the assumption that thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness are equally important, mutually moderating, proximal causes of active ideation, evidence suggests these may not be co-moderating processes. We tested an alternative perspective, hypothesizing that burden mediates the longitudinal relationship of thwarted belonging with active ideation. Methods A 6-week, […]

The indirect effect of perceived burdensomeness on the relationship between indices of social support and suicide ideation in college students

Objective: Research has demonstrated that a lack of social support is related to suicide risk. This study examines perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide, as mechanisms of the social support–suicide relationship in college students. Method: The study consisted of 207 students from a Midwestern university. Data were collected from 2007 to 2008. Two […]

Substance use frequency relates to suicidal ideation through perceived burdensomeness and to suicide attempts through capability for suicide

Background Although substance use has been linked to both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, the factors underlying these relations remain unclear. The Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (ITS) provides a framework for understanding how substance use may increase suicide risk. The purpose of the current study was to examine if frequency of substance use is indirectly […]

Comfort expressing emotions and suicide ideation: Evidence of indirect effects via perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness

Objective Emotion regulation strategies and related constructs have been implicated both as risk and protective factors in a range of mental health outcomes among young adults. To expand upon this previous research, we examined comfort expressing four discrete emotions (i.e., love, happiness, sadness, and anger) as factors that protect against suicide ideation in young adults, […]

Pulling together: The protective role of belongingness for depression, suicidal ideation and behavior among suicide-bereaved individuals

Background: While belongingness has frequently been investigated in the general population as an antidote to experiencing depression, suicidal thoughts, and suicidal behavior, it has rarely been evaluated as a protective factor among individuals bereaved by suicide. Aims: We examined whether perceived belongingness could moderate the differences between suicide-bereaved, suicide-exposed, and nonexposed respondents regarding depression, suicide ideation, and suicide […]

Relationship of self-compassion, hope, and emotional control to perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and suicidal ideation

Background: Cultivating positive feelings of self in relationships with others can affect perceptions of belongingness and burdensomeness. Aims: The present study examines the relationships of self-compassion, hope, and emotional control to thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and suicidal ideation. Method: Participants were 481 college students who completed scales measuring self-compassion, hope, emotional control, thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness, and suicidal ideation. Results: Correlation and […]

Mental health, suicidality, and connectedness among high school students during the COVID-19 pandemic: Adolescent behaviors and experiences survey, United States, January–June 2021

Disruptions and consequences related to the COVID-19 pandemic, including school closures, social isolation, family economic hardship, family loss or illness, and reduced access to health care, raise concerns about their effects on the mental health and well-being of youths. This report uses data from the 2021 Adolescent Behaviors and Experiences Survey, an online survey of […]

Integrating the interpersonal theory of suicide into the relations between cyber-victimization and suicidality among adolescents: A short-term prospective study

The relation between cyber-victimization and suicidality among adolescents has been well documented; however, the mechanisms underlying this association have not been well investigated. Drawing upon the interpersonal theory of suicide, this study aimed to examine the mediating mechanisms (i.e., thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness) underlying longitudinal, bidirectional relations between cyber-victimization and suicidal ideation/attempts among adolescents […]

Suicide ideation and thwarted interpersonal needs among psychiatric inpatients: A network approach

We aimed to demonstrate the utility of an item-level network analysis approach to suicide risk by testing the interpersonal psychological theory of suicide (IPTS) among 402 psychiatric inpatients. We hypothesized that specific thwarted belongingness (TB) or perceived burdensomeness (PB; Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire items) facets would positively relate to passive or active suicide ideation and that […]

The moderating role of pessimism in the association between retrospective relational peer victimization, interpersonal risk factors, and suicide ideation

Peer victimization (PV) is a serious concern for youth and is associated with subsequent suicide ideation in young adulthood. The interpersonal theory of suicide may provide a framework for understanding suicide ideation in this population. Specifically, thwarted belongingness (TB) and perceived burdensomeness (PB) have been significantly associated with suicide ideation among young adults with a […]

The role of perceived and objective social connectedness on risk for suicidal thoughts and behavior in late-life and their moderating effect on cognitive deficits

Objective Impaired cognition increases suicide risk while social connectedness protects against suicide risk in late life. We examined the independent and interactive effects of social connectedness and cognition on suicide risk in late life. Methods Participants included 570 individuals aged 50+ from a late-life suicide study. The Interpersonal Support Evaluation List and Social Network Index […]

Measuring social capital at the neighbourhood level: Experimental estimates of sense of belonging to the local community measured at the Census Tract Level

Statistics Canada continues to use a variety of data sources to provide neighbourhood-level variables across an expanding set of domains, such as sociodemographic characteristics, income, services and amenities, crime, and the environment. Yet, despite these advances, information on the social aspects of neighbourhoods is still unavailable. In this paper, answers to the Canadian Community Health […]