Do implicit measures improve suicide risk prediction? An 18-month prospective study using different tasks.

Abstract Background: There is accumulating evidence that implicit measures improve the prediction of suicidality within a 6-month follow-up period in psychiatric populations. Building upon these results, we set out to expand the follow-up period and to investigate various implicit methods. Methods: Seventy-nine inpatients completed the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSS) and a range of […]

Assessment of Suicide: Beck’s Scales for Assessing Mood and Suicidality (IN: Assessment, Treatment, and Prevention of Suicidal Behavior, edited by R I Yufit & D Lester)


Dimensions of Suicidal Behavior According to Patient Reports

This study conducted an exploratory factor analysis of the Suicide Intent Scale. Two large samples of suicide attempters, 435 & 252 individuals, from a general hospital were studied. The validity of the scale’s subscales obtained from the factor analysis was investigated by examining the association between the subscales & clinical variables. There were 2 factors: […]

Suicidal Intent in Deliberate Self-Harm and the Risk of Suicide: the Predictive Power of the Suicide Intent Scale


Assessing the Wish to die: a 30-Year Review of the Suicide Intent Scale

This analysis drew from decades of published research to evaluate the Suicide Intent Scale. The review sought to synthesize findings related to the scale’s normative scores, reliability, & validity, & examined the objective & subjective subscales’ performance. A literature search yielded 158 studies reporting findings for this scale. Studies supported the scale’s reliability, especially that […]

Development of a Chinese Version of the Suicide Intent Scale

This study established the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Suicide Intent Scale in a clinic- & community-based sample of 36 patients & 592 Taiwanese respondents. Results show the Chinese version demonstrates good inter-rater & test-retest reliability. Factor analysis generated 3 factors (precautions, plannning, & seriousness) explaining 92.9% of the total variance with […]

Challenges in Assessing Intent to die: can Suicide Attempters be Trusted?

This article summarizes disparate challenges to the measurement of suicidal intent; describes strengths & weaknesses of circumstantial indicators; reviews evidence from studies using the Suicide Intent Scale to show that subjective & circumstantial indicators do not strongly correlate with each other; & concludes with a call to place more trust in individuals whose disclosures of […]

Validating a Short Version of the Suicide Intent Scale in China

This study provides evidence to support the use of the shortened version of Beck’s Suicide Intent Scale in Chinese societies. The data were gathered from applying the scale in a psychological autopsy study of 66 suicides in Dalian, China. Reliability & validity tests were performed on the data. Internal consistency analysis showed excellent correlation coefficients […]

Concordance of Clinical Estimation of Suicidal Intent

Concordance of Clinical Estimation of Suicidal Intent

The aim of this paper was to assess the level of agreement between clinical estimates of suicidal intent based entirely on information recorded in the Accident & Emergency acute assessment & Beck’s Suicide Intent Scale (SIS) scores. Statistical comparison was made between the results of 79 cases of deliberate self-harm that had fully completed Beck’s […]

High Suicidal Intent Scores Indicate Future Suicide

The aim of this study was to scrutinize individual items as well as total scores of the Suicidal Intent Scale (SIS) in order to find out its usefulness for predicting suicide. Consecutive patients (N=555) were evaluated & rated with SIS shortly after a suicide attempt. When followed up at a mean time of 4.5 years, […]

Assessment and Prediction of Suicide Risk in Adolescents (IN: Treatment Approaches With Suicidal Adolescents, edited by J K Zimmerman & G M Asnis)

This chapter discusses: the importance of a developmental perspective when working with adolescents; prediction of suicide risk vs assessment; concepts of lethality & perturbation; & appropriate tests & signposts. It notes that adolescent patients do not fit easily into developed models. It recommends a comprehensive approach where each bit of information is examined in the […]

Psychological Testing for Potentially Suicidal Individuals (IN: Suicide: Guidelines for Assessment, Management, and Treatment, edited by B Bongar)

This chapter describes psychological tests which are useful in obtaining info about suicidal individuals. The tests include: Hopelessness Scale, Suicide Intent Scale, Scale for Suicide Ideation, Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire, & Suicide Probability Scale. Also included is a discussion concerning the WAIS-R, Rorschach, and TAT. (50+ ref.)

Urinary Catecholamines and Cortisol in Parasuicide

This article describes a study of 42 patients tested within 24 hours of admission to an Ontario hospital. Suicide attempters has significantly higher norepinephrine than did control patients with suicide ideation. In contrast, urinary dopamine, epinephrine, the NE/EPI ratio, urinary free cortisol, & serum cortisol did not differ between groups. Data is provided for 4 […]

Prediction of Suicide Intent in Hospitalized Parasuicides: Reasons for Living, Hopelessness, and Depression

This article examines the risk prediction efficiency of 5 assessment instruments with 51 newly hospitalized parasuicides. Results suggest that the importance attached to survival & coping beliefs as reasons for not committing suicide was a more direct predictor of suicide intent than hopelessness, depression, & negative life stress. Factors contributing to the efficacy of survival […]

Personality Disorder, Tendency to Impulsive Violence, and Suicidal Behavior in Adolescents

This article reports on a study comparing 37 inpatient suicide attempters with 29 never-suicidal psychiatric controls with respect to prevalence & severity of personality disorder, history of aggression & assaultive behavior, & other measures of impulsive violence. The apparently high prevalence of personality disorder among adolescent inpatient suicide attempters indicate that the social impairment associated […]

Clinical Components of Suicidal Intent in Adolescent Overdose

50 adolescents who overdosed were questioned on their actions surrounding the overdose & on their beliefs as to its seriousness using the Beck Suicide Intent Scale. The correlation between actions & belief was only 0.24. A factor analysis of the Scale identified 4 factors labeled expressed intent, planning, concealment, & communication. It is suggested that […]

Clinical Predictors of Eventual Suicide: a 5- to 10-Year Prospective Study of Suicide Attempters

In this study, 413 patients hospitalized for suicide attempts were tested on the Beck Depression Inventory, Hopelessness scale, & Suicidal Intent scale (SIS). The patients were followed up from 1970/75 to 1982. Of 10 clinical & demographic characteristics chosen, only a diagnosis of alcoholism predicted eventual suicide. The risk of alcoholics committing suicide was over […]

Depression, Hopelessness, and Suicidal Behavior in Chinese and American Psychiatric Patients

A study of matched groups of psychiatric patients from the U.S. & China who were having difficulty with suicidal thinking or behavior found differences due to social views & availability of medical care. Both groups reported high levels of depression & hopelessness, & fewer reasons for living. Chinese patients were less likely to communicate suicidal […]

Multiple Attempters of Suicide Presenting at an Emergency Department

Data from 463 patients with self inflicted injuries, comparing 99 multiple suicide attempters (MSAs) with 1st attempters were rated on lethality, intent & hopelessness scales. 14% of the total suicide attempt population were found to be chronic. MSAs showed more chronicity, poorer coping histories of suicidal behavior & positive histories of substance abuse. MSAs also […]

A Predictive Approach to Aaron Beck’s Formaulations Regarding Suicide

26 protocol statements reflecting important specific aspects of Beck’s formulations on suicide were deduced for this study. Significant interjudge reliability was demonstrated between 30 genuine and 30 simulated notes. Individual statements significantly more highly rated in the genuine notes indicated the presence of ideas of deprivation, perseveration, overgeneralization, inexact labelling, magnification and minimization. Implications of […]

The Personal Meaning of Suicide Attempt

Examined are the intent & purpose of an act of self destructive behavior. Subjects (n=25) were adult hospital patients who had attempted suicide by drug overdose. The Beck Suicide Intent Scale & a structured interview were used to collect research data. The study revealed 3f main themes: intent to die, life/death ambivalence, & life change. […]

Psychiatric Management of Attempted Suicide Patients

The dramatic increase in the incidence of deliberate self-poisoning & self-injury during the 1960’s & early 1970’s appears to be levelling off. However, attempted suicide patients continue to make considerable demands on general medical & psychiatric services. In this article we review the psychiatric assessment & treatment of such patients in order to provide guidelines […]