Analgesic effect of alcohol mediates the association between alcohol intoxication and deliberate self-harm

We examined whether the analgesic effect of alcohol mediates the association between alcohol and deliberate self-harm (DSH) using data from a larger study on alcohol effects. Men (n = 106) and women (n = 104) low-risk alcohol drinkers (ages M = 26.00, SD = 6.98) recruited from the community who had no suicide attempt or episode of deliberate self-harm within the past year were randomly […]

Epidemiology and clinical-demographic characteristics of suicide attempts in alcohol use

Suicide is a leading cause of morbidity worldwide. Among the known risk factors, alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are particularly relevant, but data on the epidemiology and characteristics of suicide attempts (SA) in this group are lacking. We used electronic health records of national health services to identify individuals who received a diagnosis of AUD in […]

Growing alcohol use preceding death by suicide among women compared with men: age-specific temporal trends, 2003–18

Background and aims In the United States, until 2018 both the prevalence of heavy alcohol use and the suicide mortality rate increased among men and women; however, women had experienced a notably higher increase in both. As heavy alcohol use may have contributed to the observed sex disparity in the suicide mortality rate increase, the […]

An ecological study of temporal trends in ‘deaths of despair’ in England and Wales

Purpose There is growing interest in the concept of ‘deaths of despair’ (DoD)—defined as deaths from three causes: suicide, drug poisoning, and alcohol-related conditions—as a more comprehensive indicator of the impact of psychological distress on mortality. The purpose of this study is to investigate the degree of commonality in trends and geographic patterning of deaths […]

“Lives of despair” at risk for “deaths of despair”: Tracking an under‑recognized, vulnerable population

Purpose The substantial and unexpected increase in “deaths of despair” in the US (e.g., deaths from drug overdose, suicide, and alcohol-related liver diseases) reported by economists Case and Deaton in 2015 raises questions about the number and characteristics of US adults potentially living “lives of despair” with these problems. Methods We used data from the […]

Mental health correlates of probable posttraumatic stress disorder, probable alcohol use disorder, and their co-occurrence among firefighters

Firefighters demonstrate high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD). Research has yet to compare how these diagnoses and their co-occurrence relate to firefighter mental health. This study evaluated trauma load, PTSD, alcohol use, depression, sleep, suicide risk, anger, and occupational stress across four discrete groups of firefighters (N = 660): (1) trauma-exposed […]

The association between alcohol use disorder and suicidal ideation in a New Zealand birth cohort

Background: Alcohol use disorder is associated with increased suicide risk; however, both alcohol use disorder and suicide share risk factors which must be accounted for in order to understand this relationship. This study aimed to explore the longitudinal relationship between alcohol use disorder and suicidal ideation in adulthood, while accounting for both child background and […]

Comparative risk of suicide by specific substance use disorders: A national cohort study

Substance use disorders (SUDs) are important risk factors for suicide, yet little is known about how suicide risks vary by specific SUDs. We examined these risks for the first time in a large general population to facilitate comparisons across SUDs. A national cohort study was conducted of all 6,947,191 adults in Sweden. SUDs (opioid, sedative/hypnotic, hallucinogen, cannabis, amphetamine, […]

Mortality among young people seeking residential treatment for problematic drug and alcohol use: A data linkage study

Background Young people with problematic alcohol and other drug (AOD) use are often referred to residential treatment. Subsequent mortality rates among this high-risk group is not known. This study estimates mortality rates and determines causes of death amongst young people referred to residential treatment in Sydney, Australia. Design Retrospective data linkage study. Data of young […]

Substance use and suicide outcomes among self-injured trauma patients

Background Research indicates alcohol (AUD) or substance (SUD) use disorders and acute alcohol or drug use serve as risk factors for suicidal behaviors and death both distally and proximally to a suicidal event. However, limited research has investigated these relationships among medically serious suicide attempters at the time of injury without relying on cohorts of […]

Alcohol-related suicide across Australia: A geospatial analysis

Background: The acute effects of alcohol consumption are a major risk factor for suicide. Positive blood alcohol concentrations are present in almost one-third of all suicides at time of death. These suicides are defined as alcohol-related suicides. This cross-sectional study examines the geospatial distribution/clustering of high proportions of alcohol-related suicides and reports on socioeconomic and […]

Impulsivity and cognitive flexibility as neuropsychological markers for suicidality: A multi-modal investigation among military veterans with alcohol use disorder and PTSD

To examine relations between self-report and behavioral measures of impulsivity and cognitive flexibility with suicidal ideation and self-harm and suicide attempt history. Methods: Eighty-seven military veterans who met DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were evaluated for current suicidal ideation and self-harm, suicide attempt history, impulsivity, and cognitive […]

Trends in mortality from drug poisonings, suicide, and alcohol-induced deaths in the United States from 2000 to 2017

Importance  Life expectancy has decreased in the US, driven largely by increases in drug poisoning, suicide, and alcohol-induced deaths. Assessing whether patterns of these causes differ is required to inform public health interventions. Objective  To compare patterns and trends in drug poisoning, suicide, and alcohol-induced death rates by geography and demographic characteristics. Design, Setting, and Participants  This serial […]

Neither God nor others: A qualitative study of strategies for avoiding suicide among homeless people

Introduction Drug addiction and alcoholism characterize the existential condition of most homeless people, while the risk of suicide runs in parallel. Objectives Following the Provisional Model (PM), this study aimed to explore the relationships between addiction, suicidal ideation, and religiosity among 13 homeless people, and the roles of bonding ties (within the group) and bridging […]

Does state dissociation mediate the relation between alcohol intoxication and deliberate self-harm?

Research supports the notion that alcohol intoxication is a risk factor for deliberate self-harm (DSH). However, the underlying mechanisms for this relationship are poorly understood. We aimed to determine whether alcohol-induced dissociation mediated alcohol’s effects on DSH. We used data from a dose-response study of alcohol intoxication and DSH to test the proposed model. Participants […]

Substance use disorders and risk of suicide in a general US population: A case control study

Background Prior research suggests that substance use disorders (SUDs) are associated with risk of suicide mortality, but most previous work has been conducted among Veterans Health Administration patients. Few studies have examined the relationship between SUDs and suicide mortality in general populations. Our study estimates the association of SUDs with suicide mortality in a general […]

Multi-level cultural intervention for the prevention of suicide and alcohol use risk with Alaska Native youth: A non-randomized comparison of treatment intensity

Suicide and alcohol use disorders are primary determinants of health disparity among Alaska Native people in contrast to the US general population. Qungasvik, a Yup’ik word for toolbox, is a strengths-based, multi-level, community/cultural intervention for rural Yup’ik youth ages 12-18. The intervention uses “culture as intervention” to promote reasons for life and sobriety in young […]

Treatment of co-occurring substance abuse and suicidality among adolescents: A randomized trial

OBJECTIVE: This study tested a cognitive-behavioral treatment protocol for adolescents with a co-occurring alcohol or other drug use disorder (AOD) and suicidality in a randomized clinical trial. METHOD: Forty adolescents (Mage = 15 years; 68% female, 89% White) and their families recruited from an inpatient psychiatric hospital were randomly assigned to an integrated outpatient cognitive-behavioral […]

Problematic smartphone use associated with greater alcohol consumption, mental health issues, poorer academic performance, and impulsivity

Background This study sought to examine the occurrence of the problematic use of smartphones in a university sample and associated physical and mental health correlates, including potential relationships with risky sexual practices. Methods A 156-item anonymous online survey was distributed via e-mail to a sample of 9,449 university students. In addition to problematic smartphone usage, […]

Pain in the nation: Building a national resilience strategy. Alcohol and drug misuse and suicide and the millennial generation — a devastating impact.

In 2017, more than 152,000 Americans died from alcohol- and drug-induced fatalities and suicide. That’s the highest number ever recorded and more than twice as many as in 1999.1 The largest number of these deaths, almost half, were the result of drug overdoses—more than the peak annual total from HIV, guns, or car crashes.2 Trust […]

Acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide

A case-control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals […]

Acute alcohol intoxication and suicide: A gender-stratified analysis of the National Violent Death Reporting System

OBJECTIVES: Although it is well known that people with alcohol dependence are at a markedly elevated risk for suicide, much less is known about the role of acute alcohol use in suicidal behaviours. The primary aims of this epidemiological study were to assess the prevalence and factors associated with acute alcohol intoxication among 57 813 suicide […]

A meta-analysis of acute alcohol use and the risk of suicide attempt

BACKGROUND: No review has used a meta-analytic approach to estimate common odds ratios (ORs) for the effect of acute use of alcohol (AUA) on suicide attempts. We aim to report the results of the first meta-analysis of controlled epidemiological studies on AUA and suicide attempt. METHOD: The English-language literature on Medline, PsycINFO and Google Scholar […]