A comparison of suicide attempt histories of pediatric and adult medical inpatients and implications for screening

Objective A suicide attempt is the most potent predictor of future suicidal behavior, yet little is known about how to manage and respond to reports of attempt histories in hospitalized medical patients. This study aims to describe the prevalence and characteristics of pediatric and adult medical inpatients who report a past suicide attempt. Method Participants […]

The effect of social network strain on suicidal ideation among middle-aged adults with adverse childhood experiences in the US: A twelve-year nationwide study

Objective: Building on literature that measured the association between social network strain (SNS) and suicidal ideation using conventional regression analyses, we examined the effect of SNS, due to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), on suicidal ideation using instrumental variables (IV) to eliminate the potential biases that may have occurred in earlier studies due to residual confounding. Methods: This […]

Childhood trauma increases vulnerability to attempt suicide in adulthood through avoidant attachment

Background Childhood trauma and affective disorders are known risk factors for adult suicidal behavior. Studies have shown a mediating effect of insecure attachment on the effect of childhood trauma and suicidal behavior but so far it is not clear whether this effect is related to an attachment dimension (anxiety, avoidance). Aim The present study sought to […]

Association of state Medicaid expansion status with rates of suicide among US adults

Importance  In the US, suicide is the 10th leading cause of death and a serious mental health emergency. National programs that address suicide list access to mental health care as key in prevention, and more large-scale policies are needed to improve access to mental health care and address this crisis. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care […]

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and their effect on patient aggression in adult Patients in a state psychiatric facility: A retrospective analysis

Objective: The utility of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has been overshadowed by the box warning they received when the United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) identified an increased risk of suicidality in patients 24 years of age or younger. Newer studies have identified suicidality as self-aggression and hypothesized whether this might also apply […]

Suicidal thoughts and behaviours among autistic adults presenting to the psychiatric emergency department: An exploratory chart review

Despite increasing attention on suicidality in autistic people, we know little about suicidal presentations when autistic individuals present to hospital emergency departments (ED). We conducted an exploratory retrospective chart review of suicidal thoughts and behaviours (STB) of autistic adults who presented to a psychiatric ED. The analysis included 16 charts over a 10-week period. Findings […]

The mediating role of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in the association between child neglect and suicide attempt in adulthood

To examine the association between child neglect and adult suicide risk as well as the underlying mechanism. Adults aged 18 or older from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Wave 3 who did not have suicide attempts before 18 were included (N = 35,275). Child neglect was categorized into emotional and physical neglect. Suicide […]

National trends of mental health care among US adults who attempted suicide in the past 12 months

Objective: To estimate annual rates of suicide attempts and use of mental health services among US adults from 2008 to 2019. Design, setting, and participants: This US nationally representative cross-sectional study used the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) from 2008 through 2019. Participants included noninstitutionalized US civilians 18 years or older (n = 484 […]

Revisiting evidence of primary prevention of suicide among adult populations: A systematic overview

Backgrounds Primary prevention of suicidal behaviors in the general population is required to interrupt the trend of self-inflicted deaths worldwide. We reviewed the evidence of the efficacy of primary prevention of suicide among the adult population. Methods This is an overview of systematic reviews. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Cochrane databases to identify […]

Suicide risk among adults with mental health emergency department visits with and without suicidal symptoms

Objective: The authors describe risk factors and suicide rates during the year following discharge from mental health emergency department (ED) visits by adults with suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, or neither. Methods: National cohorts of patients with mental health ED visits for suicide attempts or self-harm (n=55,323), suicidal ideation (n=435,464), or other mental health visits (n=9,144,807) […]

Mental health and well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic: Longitudinal analyses of adults in the UK COVID-19 Mental Health & Wellbeing study

Background: The effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the population’s mental health and well-being are likely to be profound and long lasting. Aims: To investigate the trajectory of mental health and well-being during the first 6 weeks of lockdown in adults in the UK. Method: A quota survey design and a sampling frame that permitted recruitment of […]

Risk of self-harm in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Objective  To appraise the available epidemiologic studies on the risk of self-injurious behavior and suicidality among children and adults with ASD. Data Sources  PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Web of Science were systematically searched for epidemiologic studies on the association between ASD and self-injurious behavior and suicidality. Databases were searched from year of inception to April through […]

Anxiety, depression, and the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide in a community sample of adults with autism spectrum disorder

The present study examines occurrence of depression, anxiety, and suicidality in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), relationships between social difficulties and mental health, and application of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide in this population. Ninety-eight adults with ASD completed an online survey. Data were analyzed using bivariate correlations, independent samples t-tests, and simple mediational […]

Suicide and self-harm in adult survivors of critical illness: Population based cohort study

Objective To analyse the association between survival from critical illness and suicide or self-harm after hospital discharge. Design Population based cohort study using linked and validated provincial databases. Setting Ontario, Canada between January 2009 and December 2017 (inclusive). Participants Consecutive adult intensive care unit (ICU) survivors (≥18 years) were included. Linked administrative databases were used to compare ICU hospital […]

Association of borderline personality disorder criteria with suicide attempts among US adults

Importance  Rates of suicide are increasing. Although borderline personality disorder (BPD) and other psychiatric disorders are associated with suicide, there is a dearth of epidemiological research on associations between BPD and suicide attempts (SAs). Delineating the SA risk associated with BPD and its specific criteria in a nationally representative sample of individuals could inform recognition and […]

Universal suicide risk screening: Views of rural adults on acceptability and implementation in primary care

Objective This study gathered data from rural adult primary care patients regarding the acceptability of universal suicide risk screening and preferred methods of implementation. Method Patients from a rural primary care clinic in southern West Virginia participating in a pilot test of a suicide risk screening program were administered a Screening Opinions Survey and resulting […]

Experience of emergency department use among persons with a history of adverse childhood experiences

Background: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, lower levels of distress tolerance, and greater emotional dysregulation, as well as with increased healthcare utilization. All these factors may lead to an increased use of emergency department (ED) services. Understanding the experience of ED utilization among a group of ED users with high […]

Clinical characteristics of suicidal youths and adults: A one-year retrospective study

Suicide is a major mental health problem, particularly during youth, when it is the second leading cause of death. Since young people at risk of suicide are often cared for by the adult health system, we sought to identify the specificities and similarities between suicidal youths and adults in order to further inform the potential […]

Twelve-month follow-up to a fully automated internet-based cognitive behavior therapy intervention for rural adults with depression symptoms: Single-arm longitudinal study

Background: Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT) interventions have the potential to help individuals with depression, regardless of time and location. Yet, limited information exists on the longer-term (>6 months) effects of iCBT and adherence to these interventions. Objective: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the longitudinal (12 months) effectiveness of a fully automated, […]

Examining the Three-Step Theory (3ST) of suicide in a prospective study of adult psychiatric inpatients

This study examined the validity and predictive utility of Three-Step Theory (3ST) of Suicide in psychiatric patients. Participants were 190 consecutively admitted adult psychiatric inpatients (53% female; 60% Caucasian; ages 18–73) assessed at three time-points: baseline, 4 weeks later (n = 112), and 3 months post-discharge (n = 102). Results were broadly supportive of the 3ST. First, at baseline, an interactive […]

Associations among state-level physical distancing measures and mental health outcomes among U.S. adults during the early COVID-19 pandemic

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify leading sources of stress, describe rates of mental health outcomes, and examine their associations among U.S. adults during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: In a cross-sectional, general population survey conducted from March 18 to April 4, 2020, U.S. adults (n=10,625) were recruited through […]

Suicide and suicide attempts in adults: Exploring suicide risk 24 months after psychiatric emergency room visit

Objective: Suicide risk (including attempted and completed suicide) should be measured over short periods of time after contacting health services. The objective of this study was to identify the patterns of attempted and completed suicides within 24-months of a psychiatric emergency department visit, as well as to investigate predictive risk factors, including sociodemographic and clinical […]

National prevalence and demographic correlates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in adults with and without depression

Background: This study examines the national prevalence rates of suicidal ideation and attempts among adults with and without major depressive episode (MDE) in five demographic groups –race, sex, age, education, and marital status – in the United States. Methods: Data extracted from the 2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) were analyzed , […]