Suicidality and protective factors among sexual and gender minority youth and adults in Canada: A cross‑sectional, population‑based study

Background Sexual and gender minority populations experience elevated risks for suicidality. This study aimed to assess prevalence and disparities in non-fatal suicidality and potential protective factors related to social support and health care access among sexual and gender minority youth and adults and their heterosexual and cisgender counterparts in Canada. The second objective was to […]

Risk factors of suicidal spectrum behaviors in adults and adolescents with attention‑deficit / hyperactivity disorder: A systematic review

Introduction Adolescents and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk of suicidal spectrum behaviors (SSBs). However, there is limited knowledge about risk factors triggering SSBs in this group of people. Objective To explore published literature concerning factors that may increase the risk of SSBs in adults and adolescents with ADHD. Methods A systematic […]

Screening for depression, anxiety, and suicide risk in adults: A systematic evidence review for the U.S Preventative Services Task Force

Objective: To review the benefits and harms of screening and treatment for depression, anxiety, and suicide risk, and the accuracy of instruments to detect these conditions among primary care patients. Data Sources: MEDLINE, PsychINFO, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews through September 9, 2022, bridging from prior […]

Trends in psychological distress among adults in England, 2020-2022

Importance: In the last 3 years, people in England have lived through a pandemic and cost-of-living and health care crises, all of which may have contributed to worsening mental health in the population. Objective: To estimate trends in psychological distress among adults over this period and to examine differences by key potential moderators. Design, setting, and participants: A […]

Mindfulness moderates the association between perceived burdensomeness and suicide ideation in adults with elevated depressive symptoms

A conceptual model in which the associations between perceived burdensomeness and suicide ideation, and between thwarted belongingness and suicide ideation, are moderated by mindfulness was examined. Participants were 218 undergraduates (mean age = 20.81) with moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms. Mindfulness significantly moderated the association between perceived burdensomeness and suicide ideation; participants with thoughts of burdensomeness experienced […]

Screening for depression and suicide risk in adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation statement

Description: Update of the 2009 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for depression in adults. Methods: The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for depression in adult populations, including older adults and pregnant and postpartum women; the accuracy of depression screening instruments; and the benefits and harms of depression […]

Comparative effectiveness of safety planning intervention with instrumental support calls (ISC) versus safety planning intervention with two-way text message caring contacts (CC) in adolescents and adults screening positive for suicide risk in emergency departments and primary care clinics: Protocol for a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

Background: Suicide is a leading cause of death in adolescents and adults in the US. Follow-up support delivered when patients return home after an emergency department (ED) or primary care encounter can significantly reduce suicidal ideation and attempts. Two follow-up models to augment usual care including the Safety Planning Intervention have high efficacy: Instrumental Support Calls […]

Perception of health, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt among adults in the community

Background: There is a well-known association between perception of poor physical health and higher rates of physical and psychological morbidity. However, little is known about the possible link between perception of health and suicidality. Aims: The study examines the relationship between perception of poor health and suicidal ideation and suicide attempt among adults in the community. Methods: Data […]

Social vulnerability and risk of suicide in US adults, 2016-2020

Objective  To determine the association between social vulnerability and suicide in adults. Design, Setting, and Participants  This cohort study analyzed 2 county-level social vulnerability measures (the Social Vulnerability Index [SVI] and the Social Vulnerability Metric [SVM]) and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–reported county-level suicides from 2016 to 2020. Data were analyzed November and December 2022. […]

Association of state Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program eligibility policies with adult mental health and suicidality

Objectives  To examine the association of state elimination of the asset test and increases in the income limit for SNAP eligibility with rates of mental health and suicidality outcomes among adults. Design, Setting, and Participants  This ecological cross-sectional study used 2014 to 2017 data on US adults from the National Vital Statistics System and 2015 to 2019 […]

Adapted suicide safety plans to address self‑harm, suicidal ideation, and suicide behaviours in autistic adults: Protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

Background Suicide prevention is a national priority for the UK government. Autistic people are at greater risk of experiencing self-harm and suicidal thoughts and behaviours than the general population. Safety plans are widely used in suicide prevention but have not yet been designed with and for autistic people. We developed the first safety plan specifically […]

Overlapping patterns of suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-injuries in adults: A prospective clinical cohort study

Objective: An overlap of non-suicidal self-injuries (NSSIs) and suicide attempts (SAs) is observed in young cohorts, but there are few robust prospective studies for adults. We compared 1-year outcomes in adults with different self-harm patterns: NSSI only, NSSI + SA, and SA only. Methods: 793 patients (67% women) consecutively presenting with NSSI (17%) or SA (83%) at […]

Suicide risk help-seeking among middle- to old-age adults: A systematic review

Background and Objectives Suicide has become a major public health concern worldwide and in the United States. Rates of suicide increase during the life course and are highest among middle- to old-age adults. Help-seeking represents a crucial coping mechanism that can mitigate suicide risk. Yet, less is known about suicide risk help-seeking, especially among these […]

Psychosocial interventions for self-harm in adults (Review)

We have reviewed the interventional literature regarding psychosocial intervention treatment trials in the field. A total of 76 trials meeting our inclusion criteria were identified. There may be beneficial eKects for psychological  therapy based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) approaches at longer follow-up time points, and for mentalisation-based therapy (MBT), and emotion-regulation psychotherapy at the […]

Suicide ideation in Canada during the COVID-19 pandemic

Introduction: Many Canadians report decreased mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic, and concerns have been raised about possible increases in suicide. This study investigates the pandemic’s potential impact on adults’ suicide ideation. Methods: We compared self-reported suicide ideation in 2020 versus 2019 by analyzing data from the Survey on COVID-19 and Mental Health (11 September to 4 […]

Non-suicidal self-injury and suicide risk among adult medical inpatients

Background Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a potent risk factor for suicide among youth. There is limited research, however, on the association between NSSI and suicide risk among adults, particularly among adult medical patients, who are a population at increased risk for suicide. To address this research gap, the current analysis aimed to describe the association […]

Are trajectories of social isolation from childhood to mid‑adulthood associated with adult depression or suicide outcomes

Purpose Social isolation has been shown to have negative effects on mental health outcomes though little is known about trajectories across the life course. We examined the relationship between trajectory groups and selected mental health outcomes in mid-adulthood. Methods We previously created a typology of social isolation based on onset during the life course and […]

Antidepressant treatment trajectories and suicide attempt among Australians aged 45 years and older: A population study using individual prescription data

Introduction Meta-analyses show antidepressant initiation has increased risk of suicidal behavior <25 years, no difference 25–64 years and reduced risk 65+ years. Estimating risks from RCTs has limitations and real-world population estimates are uncommon. Methods A self-controlled case series reporting incidence rate ratio (IRR) between exposed and control periods for antidepressants associated with suicide attempt, in Australian […]

A comparison of suicide attempt histories of pediatric and adult medical inpatients and implications for screening

Objective A suicide attempt is the most potent predictor of future suicidal behavior, yet little is known about how to manage and respond to reports of attempt histories in hospitalized medical patients. This study aims to describe the prevalence and characteristics of pediatric and adult medical inpatients who report a past suicide attempt. Method Participants […]

The effect of social network strain on suicidal ideation among middle-aged adults with adverse childhood experiences in the US: A twelve-year nationwide study

Objective: Building on literature that measured the association between social network strain (SNS) and suicidal ideation using conventional regression analyses, we examined the effect of SNS, due to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), on suicidal ideation using instrumental variables (IV) to eliminate the potential biases that may have occurred in earlier studies due to residual confounding. Methods: This […]

Childhood trauma increases vulnerability to attempt suicide in adulthood through avoidant attachment

Background Childhood trauma and affective disorders are known risk factors for adult suicidal behavior. Studies have shown a mediating effect of insecure attachment on the effect of childhood trauma and suicidal behavior but so far it is not clear whether this effect is related to an attachment dimension (anxiety, avoidance). Aim The present study sought to […]

Association of state Medicaid expansion status with rates of suicide among US adults

Importance  In the US, suicide is the 10th leading cause of death and a serious mental health emergency. National programs that address suicide list access to mental health care as key in prevention, and more large-scale policies are needed to improve access to mental health care and address this crisis. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care […]

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and their effect on patient aggression in adult Patients in a state psychiatric facility: A retrospective analysis

Objective: The utility of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has been overshadowed by the box warning they received when the United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) identified an increased risk of suicidality in patients 24 years of age or younger. Newer studies have identified suicidality as self-aggression and hypothesized whether this might also apply […]